AngularJS Modules


An AngularJS module defines an application.

A module is a container for the different parts of an application.

All application controllers should belong to a module.


A Module With One Controller

This application ("myApp"), has one controller ("myCtrl"):

AngularJS Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
<script src="http://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.3.14/angular.min.js"></script>
</head>

<body>

<div ng-app="myApp" ng-controller="myCtrl">
{{ firstName + " " + lastName }}
</div>

<script>
var app = angular.module("myApp", []);

app.controller("myCtrl", function($scope) {
    $scope.firstName = "John";
    $scope.lastName = "Doe";
});
</script>

</body>
</html>

Try it Yourself »

Modules and Controllers in Files

It is common in AngularJS applications to put the module and the controllers in JavaScript files.

In this example, "myApp.js" contains an application module definition, while "myCtrl.js" contains the controller:

AngularJS Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>

<head>
<script src="http://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.3.14/angular.min.js"></script>
</head>

<body>

<div ng-app="myApp" ng-controller="myCtrl">
{{ firstName + " " + lastName }}
</div>

<script src="myApp.js"></script>
<script src="myCtrl.js"></script>

</body>
</html>

Try it Yourself »

myApp.js

var app = angular.module("myApp", []);
Note The [] parameter in the module definition can be used to define dependent modules.

myCtrl.js

app.controller("myCtrl", function($scope) {
    $scope.firstName = "John";
    $scope.lastName= "Doe";
});

Functions can Pollute the Global Namespace

Global functions should be avoided in JavaScript. They can easily be overwritten or destroyed by other scripts.

AngularJS modules reduces this problem, by keeping all functions local to the application.


When to Load the Library?

Note In all our examples, the AngularJS library is loaded in the <head> section.

A common advise for HTML applications, is to place scripts at the very bottom of the <body> element.

But, in many AngularJS examples, you will see the library in the <head> element.

This is because calls to angular.module can only be compiled after the library has been loaded.

Another solution is to load the AngularJS library in the <body> element, before your own AngularJS scripts:

AngularJS Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<div ng-app="myApp" ng-controller="myCtrl">
{{ firstName + " " + lastName }}
</div>

<script src="http://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.3.14/angular.min.js"></script>

<script>
var app = angular.module("myApp", []);

app.controller("myCtrl", function($scope) {
    $scope.firstName = "John";
    $scope.lastName = "Doe";
});
</script>

</body>
</html>

Try it Yourself »


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