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XSD Restrictions/Facets


Restrictions are used to define acceptable values for XML elements or attributes. Restrictions on XML elements are called facets.


Restrictions on Values

The following example defines an element called "age" with a restriction. The value of age cannot be lower than 0 or greater than 120:

<xs:element name="age">
  <xs:simpleType>
    <xs:restriction base="xs:integer">
      <xs:minInclusive value="0"/>
      <xs:maxInclusive value="120"/>
    </xs:restriction>
  </xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>


Restrictions on a Set of Values

To limit the content of an XML element to a set of acceptable values, we would use the enumeration constraint.

The example below defines an element called "car" with a restriction. The only acceptable values are: Audi, Golf, BMW:

<xs:element name="car">
  <xs:simpleType>
    <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
      <xs:enumeration value="Audi"/>
      <xs:enumeration value="Golf"/>
      <xs:enumeration value="BMW"/>
    </xs:restriction>
  </xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>

The example above could also have been written like this:

<xs:element name="car" type="carType"/>

<xs:simpleType name="carType">
  <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
    <xs:enumeration value="Audi"/>
    <xs:enumeration value="Golf"/>
    <xs:enumeration value="BMW"/>
  </xs:restriction>
</xs:simpleType>

Note: In this case the type "carType" can be used by other elements because it is not a part of the "car" element.


Restrictions on a Series of Values

To limit the content of an XML element to define a series of numbers or letters that can be used, we would use the pattern constraint.

The example below defines an element called "letter" with a restriction. The only acceptable value is ONE of the LOWERCASE letters from a to z:

<xs:element name="letter">
  <xs:simpleType>
    <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
      <xs:pattern value="[a-z]"/>
    </xs:restriction>
  </xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>

The next example defines an element called "initials" with a restriction. The only acceptable value is THREE of the UPPERCASE letters from a to z:

<xs:element name="initials">
  <xs:simpleType>
    <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
      <xs:pattern value="[A-Z][A-Z][A-Z]"/>
    </xs:restriction>
  </xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>

The next example also defines an element called "initials" with a restriction. The only acceptable value is THREE of the LOWERCASE OR UPPERCASE letters from a to z:

<xs:element name="initials">
  <xs:simpleType>
    <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
      <xs:pattern value="[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z]"/>
    </xs:restriction>
  </xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>

The next example defines an element called "choice" with a restriction. The only acceptable value is ONE of the following letters: x, y, OR z:

<xs:element name="choice">
  <xs:simpleType>
    <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
      <xs:pattern value="[xyz]"/>
    </xs:restriction>
  </xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>

The next example defines an element called "prodid" with a restriction. The only acceptable value is FIVE digits in a sequence, and each digit must be in a range from 0 to 9:

<xs:element name="prodid">
  <xs:simpleType>
    <xs:restriction base="xs:integer">
      <xs:pattern value="[0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9]"/>
    </xs:restriction>
  </xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>


Other Restrictions on a Series of Values

The example below defines an element called "letter" with a restriction. The acceptable value is zero or more occurrences of lowercase letters from a to z:

<xs:element name="letter">
  <xs:simpleType>
    <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
      <xs:pattern value="([a-z])*"/>
    </xs:restriction>
  </xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>

The next example also defines an element called "letter" with a restriction. The acceptable value is one or more pairs of letters, each pair consisting of a lower case letter followed by an upper case letter. For example, "sToP" will be validated by this pattern, but not "Stop" or "STOP" or "stop":

<xs:element name="letter">
  <xs:simpleType>
    <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
      <xs:pattern value="([a-z][A-Z])+"/>
    </xs:restriction>
  </xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>

The next example defines an element called "gender" with a restriction. The only acceptable value is male OR female:

<xs:element name="gender">
  <xs:simpleType>
    <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
      <xs:pattern value="male|female"/>
    </xs:restriction>
  </xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>

The next example defines an element called "password" with a restriction. There must be exactly eight characters in a row and those characters must be lowercase or uppercase letters from a to z, or a number from 0 to 9:

<xs:element name="password">
  <xs:simpleType>
    <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
      <xs:pattern value="[a-zA-Z0-9]{8}"/>
    </xs:restriction>
  </xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>


Restrictions on Whitespace Characters

To specify how whitespace characters should be handled, we would use the whiteSpace constraint.

This example defines an element called "address" with a restriction. The whiteSpace constraint is set to "preserve", which means that the XML processor WILL NOT remove any white space characters:

<xs:element name="address">
  <xs:simpleType>
    <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
      <xs:whiteSpace value="preserve"/>
    </xs:restriction>
  </xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>

This example also defines an element called "address" with a restriction. The whiteSpace constraint is set to "replace", which means that the XML processor WILL REPLACE all white space characters (line feeds, tabs, spaces, and carriage returns) with spaces:

<xs:element name="address">
  <xs:simpleType>
    <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
      <xs:whiteSpace value="replace"/>
    </xs:restriction>
  </xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>

This example also defines an element called "address" with a restriction. The whiteSpace constraint is set to "collapse", which means that the XML processor WILL REMOVE all white space characters (line feeds, tabs, spaces, carriage returns are replaced with spaces, leading and trailing spaces are removed, and multiple spaces are reduced to a single space):

<xs:element name="address">
  <xs:simpleType>
    <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
      <xs:whiteSpace value="collapse"/>
    </xs:restriction>
  </xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>


Restrictions on Length

To limit the length of a value in an element, we would use the length, maxLength, and minLength constraints.

This example defines an element called "password" with a restriction. The value must be exactly eight characters:

<xs:element name="password">
  <xs:simpleType>
    <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
      <xs:length value="8"/>
    </xs:restriction>
  </xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>

This example defines another element called "password" with a restriction. The value must be minimum five characters and maximum eight characters:

<xs:element name="password">
  <xs:simpleType>
    <xs:restriction base="xs:string">
      <xs:minLength value="5"/>
      <xs:maxLength value="8"/>
    </xs:restriction>
  </xs:simpleType>
</xs:element>


Restrictions for Datatypes

Constraint Description
enumeration Defines a list of acceptable values
fractionDigits Specifies the maximum number of decimal places allowed. Must be equal to or greater than zero
length Specifies the exact number of characters or list items allowed. Must be equal to or greater than zero
maxExclusive Specifies the upper bounds for numeric values (the value must be less than this value)
maxInclusive Specifies the upper bounds for numeric values (the value must be less than or equal to this value)
maxLength Specifies the maximum number of characters or list items allowed. Must be equal to or greater than zero
minExclusive Specifies the lower bounds for numeric values (the value must be greater than this value)
minInclusive Specifies the lower bounds for numeric values (the value must be greater than or equal to this value)
minLength Specifies the minimum number of characters or list items allowed. Must be equal to or greater than zero
pattern Defines the exact sequence of characters that are acceptable
totalDigits Specifies the exact number of digits allowed. Must be greater than zero
whiteSpace Specifies how white space (line feeds, tabs, spaces, and carriage returns) is handled


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