XSL-FO azimuth Property


Definition and Usage

The azimuth property is used only in Aural Stylesheets.

The aural rendering of a document combines sounds and voices to go through the content of a document. Aural presentation occurs often by converting the document to plain text and then feeding this to a screen reader.

Situations and markets for listening to information could be:

  • for blind people
  • in the car
  • help users learning to read

Azimuth and elevation are important properties for aural presentation. These properties are used to keep several voices apart. In real life, all the people do not stand in the same spot in a room.

The azimuth property specifies what side the sound should come from.


  • Inherited: yes
  • Percentages: N/A
  • Media: aural

Property Values

Value Description
angle A fixed value within the range -360deg to 360deg.
  • 0deg means ahead in the center
  • 90deg is to the right
  • 180deg is behind
  • 270deg (or -90deg) is to the left
left-side 270deg and behind 270deg
far-left 300deg and behind 240deg
left 320deg and behind 220deg
center-left 340deg and behind 200deg
center Default. 0deg and behind 180deg
center-right 20deg and behind 160deg
right 40deg and behind 140deg
far-right 60deg and behind 120deg
right-side 90deg and behind 90deg
leftwards The sound moves to the left
rightwards The sound moves to the right



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