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JS Tutorial

JS HOME JS Introduction JS Where To JS Output JS Statements JS Syntax JS Comments JS Variables JS Let JS Const JS Operators JS Arithmetic JS Assignment JS Data Types JS Functions JS Objects JS Events JS Strings JS String Methods JS String Search JS String Templates JS Numbers JS Number Methods JS Arrays JS Array Methods JS Array Sort JS Array Iteration JS Array Const JS Dates JS Date Formats JS Date Get Methods JS Date Set Methods JS Math JS Random JS Booleans JS Comparisons JS Conditions JS Switch JS Loop For JS Loop For In JS Loop For Of JS Loop While JS Break JS Iterables JS Sets JS Maps JS Typeof JS Type Conversion JS Bitwise JS RegExp JS Errors JS Scope JS Hoisting JS Strict Mode JS this Keyword JS Arrow Function JS Classes JS JSON JS Debugging JS Style Guide JS Best Practices JS Mistakes JS Performance JS Reserved Words

JS Versions

JS Versions JS 2009 (ES5) JS 2015 (ES6) JS 2016 JS 2017 JS 2018 JS IE / Edge JS History

JS Objects

Object Definitions Object Properties Object Methods Object Display Object Accessors Object Constructors Object Prototypes Object Iterables Object Sets Object Maps Object Reference

JS Functions

Function Definitions Function Parameters Function Invocation Function Call Function Apply Function Closures

JS Classes

Class Intro Class Inheritance Class Static

JS Async

JS Callbacks JS Asynchronous JS Promises JS Async/Await

JS HTML DOM

DOM Intro DOM Methods DOM Document DOM Elements DOM HTML DOM Forms DOM CSS DOM Animations DOM Events DOM Event Listener DOM Navigation DOM Nodes DOM Collections DOM Node Lists

JS Browser BOM

JS Window JS Screen JS Location JS History JS Navigator JS Popup Alert JS Timing JS Cookies

JS Web APIs

Web API Intro Web Forms API Web History API Web Storage API Web Worker API Web Fetch API Web Geolocation API

JS AJAX

AJAX Intro AJAX XMLHttp AJAX Request AJAX Response AJAX XML File AJAX PHP AJAX ASP AJAX Database AJAX Applications AJAX Examples

JS JSON

JSON Intro JSON Syntax JSON vs XML JSON Data Types JSON Parse JSON Stringify JSON Objects JSON Arrays JSON Server JSON PHP JSON HTML JSON JSONP

JS vs jQuery

jQuery Selectors jQuery HTML jQuery CSS jQuery DOM

JS Graphics

JS Graphics JS Canvas JS Plotly JS Chart.js JS Google Chart JS D3.js

JS Examples

JS Examples JS HTML DOM JS HTML Input JS HTML Objects JS HTML Events JS Browser JS Editor JS Exercises JS Quiz JS Certificate

JS References

JavaScript Objects HTML DOM Objects


JavaScript Versions

JavaScript was invented by Brendan Eich in 1995, and became an ECMA standard in 1997.

ECMAScript is the official name of the language.

ECMAScript versions have been abbreviated to ES1, ES2, ES3, ES5, and ES6.

Since 2016 new versions are named by year (ECMAScript 2016 / 2017 / 2018).

ECMAScript Editions

Allows trailing commas for function parameters
Ver Official Name Description
ES1 ECMAScript 1 (1997)First edition
ES2 ECMAScript 2 (1998)Editorial changes
ES3 ECMAScript 3 (1999)Added regular expressions
Added try/catch
Added switch
Added do-while
ES4 ECMAScript 4Never released
ES5 ECMAScript 5 (2009)

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Added "strict mode"
Added JSON support
Added String.trim()
Added Array.isArray()
Added Array iteration methods
Allows trailing commas for object literals
ES6 ECMAScript 2015

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Added let and const
Added default parameter values
Added Array.find()
Added Array.findIndex()
ECMAScript 2016

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Added exponential operator (**)
Added Array.includes()
ECMAScript 2017

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Added string padding
Added Object.entries()
Added Object.values()
Added async functions
Added shared memory
ECMAScript 2018

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Added rest / spread properties
Added asynchronous iteration
Added Promise.finally()
Additions to RegExp

This tutorial covers every version of JavaScript:

  • The Original JavaScript ES1 ES2 ES3 (1997-1999)
  • The First Main Revision ES5 (2009)
  • The Second Revision ES6 (2015)
  • Yearly Additions (2016, 2017, 2018)

Browser Support

ECMAScript 1 - 6 is fully supported in all modern browsers.


Browser Support for ES5 (2009)

Browser Version From Date
Chrome23Nov 2012
Firefox21May 2013
IE9*Mar 2011
IE / Edge10Sep 2012
Safari6Jul 2012
Opera15Jul 2013

* Internet Explorer 9 does not support ECMAScript 5 "use strict".


Browser Support for ES6 (2015)

Browser Version Date
Chrome51May 2016
Firefox52Mar 2017
Edge14Aug 2016
Safari10Sep 2016
Opera38Jun 2016

Internet Explorer does not support ECMAScript 2015.



Browser Support for ECMAScript 2016

Browser Version Date
Chrome52Jul 2016
Firefox54Jun 2017
Edge14Aug 2016
Safari10.1Mar 2017
Opera39Aug 2016