The DOCTYPE declaration for HTML5 is very simple:
The character encoding (charset) declaration is also very simple:
|The default character encoding in HTML5 is UTF-8.|
The most interesting new elements are:
New semantic elements like <header>, <footer>, <article>, and <section>.
New form control attributes like number, date, time, calendar, and range.
New graphic elements: <svg> and <canvas>.
New multimedia elements: <audio> and <video>.
|In the chapter HTML5 Support, you will learn how to "teach" old browsers to handle HTML5 semantic.|
The most interesting new API's are:
|Local storage is a powerful replacement for cookies.|
The following HTML4 elements have been removed from HTML5:
|In the chapter HTML5 Migration, you will learn how to easily migrate from HTML4 to HTML5.|
Since the early days of the web, there have been many versions of HTML:
|Tim Berners-Lee invented www||1989|
|Tim Berners-Lee invented HTML||1991|
|Dave Raggett drafted HTML+||1993|
|HTML Working Group defined HTML 2.0||1995|
|W3C Recommended HTML 3.2||1997|
|W3C Recommended HTML 4.01||1999|
|W3C Recommended XHTML 1.0||2000|
|HTML5 WHATWG First Public Draft||2008|
|HTML5 WHATWG Living Standard||2012|
|HTML5 W3C Final Recommendation||2014|
Tim Berners-Lee invented the "World Wide Web" in 1989, and the Internet took off in the 1990s.
From 1991 to 1998, HTML developed from version 1 to version 4.
In 2000, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommended XHTML 1.0.
The XHTML syntax was strict, and the developers were forced to write valid and "well-formed" code.
In 2004, WHATWG (Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group) was formed in response to slow W3C development, and W3C's decision to close down the development of HTML, in favor of XHTML.
WHATWG wanted to develop HTML, consistent with how the web was used, while being backward compatible with older versions of HTML.
In the period 2004-2006, the WHATWG initiative gained support by the major browser vendors.
In 2006, W3C announced that they would support WHATWG.
In 2008, the first HTML5 public draft was released.
In 2012, WHATWG and W3C decided on a separation:
WHATWG will develop HTML as a "Living Standard".
A living standard is never fully complete, but always updated and improved. New features can be added, but old functionality can not be removed.
The WHATWG Living Standard was published in 2012, and is continuously updated.
W3C will develop a definitive HTML5 and XHTML5 standard, as a "snapshot" of WHATWG.
The W3C HTML5 recommendation was released 28 October 2014.