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CSS3 2D Transforms


CSS3 Transforms

CSS3 Transforms

With CSS3 transform, we can move, scale, turn, spin, and stretch elements.

A transformation is an effect that lets an element change shape, size and position.

You can transform your elements using 2D or 3D transformation.


Browser Support for 2D Transforms

The numbers in the table specify the first browser version that fully supports the property.

Numbers followed by -ms-, -webkit-, -moz-, or -o- specify the first version that worked with a prefix.

Property
transform 10.0
9.0 -ms-
36.0
4.0 -webkit-
16.0
3.5 -moz-
3.2 -webkit- 23.0
15.0 -webkit-
12.1
10.5 -o-
transform-origin
(two-value syntax)
10.0
9.0 -ms-
36.0
4.0 -webkit-
16.0
3.5 -moz-
3.2 -webkit- 23.0
15.0 -webkit-
12.1
10.5 -o-


CSS3 2D Transforms

In this chapter you will learn about the 2d transform methods:

  • translate()
  • rotate()
  • scale()
  • skew()
  • matrix()

You will learn about 3D transforms in the next chapter.

Example

div {
    -ms-transform: rotate(30deg); /* IE 9 */
    -webkit-transform: rotate(30deg); /* Chrome, Safari, Opera */
    transform: rotate(30deg);
}

Try it yourself »


The translate() Method

Translate

With the translate() method, the element moves from its current position, depending on the parameters given for the left (X-axis) and the top (Y-axis) position:

Example

div {
    -ms-transform: translate(50px,100px); /* IE 9 */
    -webkit-transform: translate(50px,100px); /* Chrome, Safari, Opera */
    transform: translate(50px,100px);
}

Try it yourself »

The value translate(50px,100px) moves the element 50 pixels from the left, and 100 pixels from the top.


The rotate() Method

Rotate

With the rotate() method, the element rotates clockwise at a given degree. Negative values are allowed and rotates the element counter-clockwise.

Example

div {
    -ms-transform: rotate(30deg); /* IE 9 */
    -webkit-transform: rotate(30deg); /* Chrome, Safari, Opera */
    transform: rotate(30deg);
}

Try it yourself »

The value rotate(30deg) rotates the element clockwise 30 degrees.


The scale() Method

Scale

With the scale() method, the element increases or decreases the size, depending on the parameters given for the width (X-axis) and the height (Y-axis):

Example

div {
    -ms-transform: scale(2,4); /* IE 9 */
    -webkit-transform: scale(2,4); /* Chrome, Safari, Opera */
    transform: scale(2,4);
}

Try it yourself »

The value scale(2,4) transforms the width to be twice its original size, and the height 4 times its original size.


The skew() Method

Skew

With the skew() method, the element turns in a given angle, depending on the parameters given for the horizontal (X-axis) and the vertical (Y-axis) lines:

Example

div {
    -ms-transform: skew(30deg,20deg); /* IE 9 */
    -webkit-transform: skew(30deg,20deg); /* Chrome, Safari, Opera */
    transform: skew(30deg,20deg);
}

Try it yourself »

The value skew(30deg,20deg) turns the element 30 degrees around the X-axis, and 20 degrees around the Y-axis.


The matrix() Method

Rotate

The matrix() method combines all of the 2D transform methods into one.

The matrix method take six parameters, containing mathematic functions, which allows you to: rotate, scale, move (translate), and skew elements.

Example

How to rotate a div element 30 degrees, using the matrix method:

div {
    -ms-transform: matrix(0.866,0.5,-0.5,0.866,0,0); /* IE 9 */
    -webkit-transform: matrix(0.866,0.5,-0.5,0.866,0,0); /* Chrome, Safari, Opera */
    transform: matrix(0.866,0.5,-0.5,0.866,0,0);
}

Try it yourself »


CSS3 Transform Properties

The following table lists all the transform properties:

Property Description
transform Applies a 2D or 3D transformation to an element
transform-origin Allows you to change the position on transformed elements

2D Transform Methods

Function Description
matrix(n,n,n,n,n,n) Defines a 2D transformation, using a matrix of six values
translate(x,y) Defines a 2D translation, moving the element along the X- and the Y-axis
translateX(n) Defines a 2D translation, moving the element along the X-axis
translateY(n) Defines a 2D translation, moving the element along the Y-axis
scale(x,y) Defines a 2D scale transformation, changing the elements width and height
scaleX(n) Defines a 2D scale transformation, changing the element's width
scaleY(n) Defines a 2D scale transformation, changing the element's height
rotate(angle) Defines a 2D rotation, the angle is specified in the parameter
skew(x-angle,y-angle) Defines a 2D skew transformation along the X- and the Y-axis
skewX(angle) Defines a 2D skew transformation along the X-axis
skewY(angle) Defines a 2D skew transformation along the Y-axis



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