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CSS3 Animations


CSS3 Animations

With CSS3, we can create animations which can replace Flash animations, animated images, and JavaScripts in existing web pages.

CSS3
Animation

Browser Support

The numbers in the table specify the first browser version that fully supports the property.

Numbers followed by -webkit-, -moz-, or -o- specify the first version that worked with a prefix.

Property
@keyframes 10.0 4.0 -webkit- 16.0
5.0 -moz-
4.0 -webkit- 15.0 -webkit-
12.1
12.0 -o-
animation 10.0 4.0 -webkit- 16.0
5.0 -moz-
4.0 -webkit- 15.0 -webkit-
12.1
12.0 -o-


CSS3 @keyframes Rule

The @keyframes rule is where the animation is created.

Specify a CSS style inside the @keyframes rule and the animation will gradually change from the current style to the new style.


CSS3 Animation

When an animation is created in the @keyframe rule, you must bind it to a selector, otherwise the animation will have no effect.

Bind the animation to a selector (element) by specifying at least these two properties:

  •  the name of the animation
  •  the duration of the animation

Example

Bind the "myfirst" animation to the div element. Animation duration: 5 seconds:

div {
    -webkit-animation: myfirst 5s; /* Chrome, Safari, Opera */
    animation: myfirst 5s;
}

/* Chrome, Safari, Opera */
@-webkit-keyframes myfirst {
    from {background: red;}
    to {background: yellow;}
}

/* Standard syntax */
@keyframes myfirst {
    from {background: red;}
    to {background: yellow;}
}

Try it yourself »

Note: If the duration part is not specified, the animation will have no effect, because the default value is 0. 


What Are CSS3 Animations?

An animation lets an element gradually change from one style to another.

You can change as many properties you want, as many times you want.

You can specify when the change will happen in percent, or you can use the keywords "from" and "to" (which represents 0% and 100%).

0% represents the start of the animation, 100% is when the animation is complete.

Example

Change the background color when the animation is 25%, and 50%, and again when the animation is 100% complete:

/* Chrome, Safari, Opera */
@-webkit-keyframes myfirst {
    0%   {background: red;}
    25%  {background: yellow;}
    50%  {background: blue;}
    100% {background: green;}
}

/* Standard syntax */
@keyframes myfirst {
    0%   {background: red;}
    25%  {background: yellow;}
    50%  {background: blue;}
    100% {background: green;}
}

Try it yourself »

Example

Change the background color and the position when the animation is 25%, 50%, 75%, and again when the animation is 100% complete:

/* Chrome, Safari, Opera */
@-webkit-keyframes myfirst {
    0%   {background: red; left:0px; top:0px;}
    25%  {background: yellow; left:200px; top:0px;}
    50%  {background: blue; left:200px; top:200px;}
    75%  {background: green; left:0px; top:200px;}
    100% {background: red; left:0px; top:0px;}
}

/* Standard syntax */
@keyframes myfirst {
    0%   {background: red; left:0px; top:0px;}
    25%  {background: yellow; left:200px; top:0px;}
    50%  {background: blue; left:200px; top:200px;}
    75%  {background: green; left:0px; top:200px;}
    100% {background: red; left:0px; top:0px;}
}

Try it yourself »


More Animation Examples

The example below uses seven of the animation properties:

Example

div {
    /* Chrome, Safari, Opera */
    -webkit-animation-name: myfirst;
    -webkit-animation-duration: 5s;
    -webkit-animation-timing-function: linear;
    -webkit-animation-delay: 2s;
    -webkit-animation-iteration-count: infinite;
    -webkit-animation-direction: alternate;
    -webkit-animation-play-state: running;
    /* Standard syntax */
    animation-name: myfirst;
    animation-duration: 5s;
    animation-timing-function: linear;
    animation-delay: 2s;
    animation-iteration-count: infinite;
    animation-direction: alternate;
    animation-play-state: running;
}

Try it yourself »

The same animation effect as the example above (except the animation-play-state property). However, here we are using the shorthand animation property:

Example

div {
    -webkit-animation: myfirst 5s linear 2s infinite alternate; /* Chrome, Safari, Opera */
    animation: myfirst 5s linear 2s infinite alternate; /* Standard syntax */
}

Try it yourself »


CSS3 Animation Properties

The following table lists the @keyframes rule and all the animation properties:

Property Description CSS
@keyframes Specifies the animation 3
animation A shorthand property for setting all the animation properties, except the animation-play-state and the animation-fill-mode property 3
animation-delay Specifies when the animation will start 3
animation-direction Specifies whether or not the animation should play in reverse on alternate cycles 3
animation-duration Specifies how many seconds or milliseconds an animation takes to complete one cycle 3
animation-fill-mode Specifies what styles will apply for the element when the animation is not playing (when it is finished, or when it has a "delay") 3
animation-iteration-count Specifies the number of times an animation should be played 3
animation-name Specifies the name of the @keyframes animation 3
animation-play-state Specifies whether the animation is running or paused 3
animation-timing-function Specifies the speed curve of the animation 3



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