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HTML5 Introduction


HTML5 is the latest HTML standard. It walks hand in hand with CSS3, the latest CSS standard.


HTML5

HTML5 Elements
HTML5 Semantic
HTML5 Input types
HTML5 Graphics
HTML5 Video / Audio
HTML5 Geolocation
HTML5 Drag / Drop
HTML5 Local Storage
HTML5 Web Workers
HTML5

CSS3

CSS3 Borders
CSS3 Backgrounds
CSS3 Gradients
CSS3 Fonts
CSS3 2D Transforms
CSS3 3D Transforms
CSS3 Transitions
CSS3 Animations
CSS3 Columns
CSS3 User Interface

What is New in HTML5?

The DOCTYPE declaration for HTML5 is very simple:

<!DOCTYPE html>

The character encoding (charset) declaration is also very simple:

<meta charset="UTF-8">

HTML5 Example:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<title>Title of the document</title>
</head>

<body>
Content of the document......
</body>

</html>

Note The default character encoding in HTML5 is UTF-8.


New HTML5 Elements

The most interesting new elements are: 

New semantic elements like <header>, <footer>, <article>, and <section>.

New form controls like number, date, time, calendar, and range.

New graphic elements: <svg> and <canvas>.

New multimedia elements: <audio> and <video>.

Note In the chapter HTML5 Support, you will learn how to "teach" old browsers to handle HTML5 semantic.


New HTML5 API's (Application Programming Interfaces)

The most interesting new API's are:

  • HTML Geolocation
  • HTML Drag and Drop
  • HTML Local Storage
  • HTML Application Cache
  • HTML Web Workers
  • HTML SSE

Note Local storage is a powerful replacement for cookies.


Elements Removed in HTML5

The following HTML4 elements have been removed from HTML5:

Element Use instead
<acronym> <abbr>
<applet> <object>
<basefont> CSS
<big> CSS
<center> CSS
<dir> <ul>
<font> CSS
<frame>  
<frameset>  
<noframes>  
<strike> CSS
<tt> CSS

Note In the chapter HTML5 Migration, you will learn how to easily migrate from HTML4 to HTML5. 


HTML5 History

Since the early days of the web, there have been many versions of HTML:

Version Year
Tim Berners-Lee 1989
HTML 1991
HTML+ 1993
HTML 2.0 1995
HTML 3.2 1997
HTML 4.01 1999
XHTML 2000
HTML5 2012

Tim Berners-Lee invented HTML in 1989, and the Internet took of in the 1990s.

In 2000, W3C (the World Wide Web Consortium) recommended XHTML 1.0.

When XHTML was introduced, W3C referred to HTML 4 as "deprecated, legacy functionality", and closed down the development of HTML, in favor of XHTML. 

The XHTML syntax was strict, and developers where forced to write valid and "well-formed" code.

Many web developers "converted" to XHTML 1.0, and W3C continued to work towards XHTML 2.0.

In 2004, WHATWG (the Web Hypertext Application Technology Group) was formed.

WHATWG wanted to develop HTML, consistent with how the web was used, while being backward compatible with older versions of HTML.

In the period 2004-2006, WHATWG support was implemented in browsers, XHTML 2.0 support was not.

In 2006, W3C announced that they would support WHATWG, and HTML5 was born.



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