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HTML Tables


HTML Table Example

Number First Name Last Name Points
1 Eve Jackson 94
2 John Doe 80
3 Adam Johnson 67
4 Jill Smith 50


Defining HTML Tables

Example

<table style="width:100%">
  <tr>
    <td>Jill</td>
    <td>Smith</td>
    <td>50</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>Eve</td>
    <td>Jackson</td>
    <td>94</td>
  </tr>
</table>

Try it Yourself »

Example explained:

Tables are defined with the <table> tag.

Tables are divided into table rows with the <tr> tag.

Table rows are divided into table data with the <td> tag.

A table row can also be divided into table headings with the <th> tag.

Note Table data <td> are the data containers of the table.
They can contain all sorts of HTML elements like text, images, lists, other tables, etc.


An HTML Table with a Border Attribute

If you do not specify a border for the table, it will be displayed without borders.

A border can be added using the border attribute:

Example

<table border="1" style="width:100%">
  <tr>
    <td>Jill</td>
    <td>Smith</td>
    <td>50</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>Eve</td>
    <td>Jackson</td>
    <td>94</td>
  </tr>
</table>

Try it Yourself »

Note The border attribute is on its way out of the HTML standard! It is better to use CSS.

To add borders, use the CSS border property:

Example

table, th, td {
    border: 1px solid black;
}

Try it Yourself »

Remember to define borders for both the table and the table cells.


An HTML Table with Collapsed Borders

If you want the borders to collapse into one border, add CSS border-collapse:

Example

table, th, td {
    border: 1px solid black;
    border-collapse: collapse;
}

Try it Yourself »


An HTML Table with Cell Padding

Cell padding specifies the space between the cell content and its borders.

If you do not specify a padding, the table cells will be displayed without padding.

To set the padding, use the CSS padding property:

Example

table, th, td {
    border: 1px solid black;
    border-collapse: collapse;
}
th,td {
    padding: 15px;
}

Try it Yourself »


HTML Table Headings

Table headings are defined with the <th> tag.

By default, all major browsers display table headings as bold and centered:

Example

<table style="width:100%">
  <tr>
    <th>Firstname</th>
    <th>Lastname</th>
    <th>Points</th>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>Eve</td>
    <td>Jackson</td>
    <td>94</td>
  </tr>
</table>

Try it Yourself »

To left-align the table headings, use the CSS text-align property:

Example

th {
    text-align: left;
}

Try it Yourself »


An HTML Table with Border Spacing

Border spacing specifies the space between the cells.

To set the border spacing for a table, use the CSS border-spacing property:

Example

table {
    border-spacing: 5px;
}

Try it Yourself »

Note If the table has collapsed borders, border-spacing has no effect.


Table Cells that Span Many Columns

To make a cell span more than one column, use the colspan attribute:

Example

<table style="width:100%">
  <tr>
    <th>Name</th>
    <th colspan="2">Telephone</th>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>Bill Gates</td>
    <td>555 77 854</td>
    <td>555 77 855</td>
  </tr>
</table>

Try it Yourself »


Table Cells that Span Many Rows

To make a cell span more than one row, use the rowspan attribute:

Example

<table style="width:100%">
  <tr>
    <th>First Name:</th>
    <td>Bill Gates</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <th rowspan="2">Telephone:</th>
    <td>555 77 854</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>555 77 855</td>
  </tr>
</table>

Try it Yourself »


An HTML Table With a Caption

To add a caption to a table, use the <caption> tag:

Example

<table style="width:100%">
  <caption>Monthly savings</caption>
  <tr>
    <th>Month</th>
    <th>Savings</th>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>January</td>
    <td>$100</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>February</td>
    <td>$50</td>
  </tr>
</table>

Try it Yourself »


Different Styles for Different Tables

Most of the examples above use a style attribute (width="100%") to define the width of each table.

This makes it easy to define different widths for different tables.

The styles in the <head> section, however, define a style for all tables in a page. 

To define different styles for different tables, add a class attribute to the table:

Example

<table class="names">
  <tr>
    <th>Firstname</th>
    <th>Lastname</th>
    <th>Points</th>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>Eve</td>
    <td>Jackson</td>
    <td>94</td>
  </tr>
</table>

Now you can define a different styles for this table:

table.names {
    width: 100%;
    background-color: #f1f1c1;
}

Try it Yourself »

And add more styles:

table.names tr:nth-child(even) {
    background-color: #f1f1c1;
}
table.names tr:nth-child(odd) {
    background-color: #ffffff;
}
table.names th {
    color: white;
    background-color: #333333;
}

Try it Yourself »


HTML Tables Summary

  • Use <table> to define tables
  • Use <tr> to define table rows
  • Use <td> to define table data
  • Use <th> to define table headings
  • Use CSS border to define borders
  • Use CSS border-collapse to collapse cell borders
  • Use CSS padding to add padding to table cells
  • Use CSS text-align to align cell text
  • Use CSS border-spacing to set the spacing between cells

Examples

Try-It-Yourself Summary

Basic HTML tables
How to create basic tables in HTML.

A table with borders
How to add borders to a table.

A table with collapsed borders
How to make the borders collapse.

A table with cell padding
How to add space between cell content an the border.

A table with headings
How to left align table headings.

A table with left-aligned headings
How to left align table headings.

Horizontal/Vertical table headings
How to create horizontal/vertical table headings.

A table with a caption
How to add a caption to a table.

Table cells that span more than one column
How to define table cells that span more than one column.

Table cells that span more than one row
How to define table cells that span more than one row.

A table with cell spacing
How to define the spacing between table cells.

A table with HTML tags inside
How to display HTML elements inside table cells.

Tables with different styles 1
How to style tables differently.

Tables with different styles 2
How to style tables differently.


Test Yourself Exercises

Exercise 1 »    Exercise 2 »    Exercise 3 »    Exercise 4 »    Exercise 5 »   


HTML Table Tags

Tag Description
<table> Defines a table
<th> Defines a header cell in a table
<tr> Defines a row in a table
<td> Defines a cell in a table
<caption> Defines a table caption
<colgroup> Specifies a group of one or more columns in a table for formatting
<col> Specifies column properties for each column within a <colgroup> element
<thead> Groups the header content in a table
<tbody> Groups the body content in a table
<tfoot> Groups the footer content in a table



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