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JavaScript Operators


Example

Assign values to variables and add them together:

var x = 5;         // assign the value 5 to x
var y = 2;         // assign the value 2 to y
var z = x + y;     // assign the value 7 to z (x + y)
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JavaScript Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators are used to perform arithmetic on numbers (literals or variables).

Operator Description
+ Addition
- Subtraction
* Multiplication
/ Division
% Modulus
++ Increment
-- Decrement

The addition operator (+) adds numbers:

Adding

var x = 5;
var y = 2;
var z = x + y;
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The multiplication operator (*) multiplies numbers.

Multiplying

var x = 5;
var y = 2;
var z = x * y;
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You will learn more about arithmetic in the next chaper.


JavaScript Assignment Operators

Assignment operators assign values to JavaScript variables.

Operator Example Same As
= x = y x = y
+= x += y x = x + y
-= x -= y x = x - y
*= x *= y x = x * y
/= x /= y x = x / y
%= x %= y x = x % y
<<= x <<= y x = x << y
>>= x >>= y x = x >> y
>>>= x >>>= y x = x >>> y
&= x &= y x = x & y
^= x ^= y x = x ^ y
|= x |= y x = x | y

The assignment operator (=) assigns a value to a variable.

Assignment

var x = 10;
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The addition assignment operator (+=) adds a value to a variable.

Assignment

var x = 10;
x += 5;
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JavaScript String Operators

The + operator can also be used to add (concatenate) strings.

When used on strings, the + operator is called the concatenation operator.

Example

txt1 = "John";
txt2 = "Doe";
txt3 = txt1 + " " + txt2;

The result of txt3 will be:

John Doe
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The += assignment operator can also be used to add (concatenate) strings:

Example

txt1 = "What a very ";
txt1 += "nice day";

The result of txt1 will be:

What a very nice day
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Adding Strings and Numbers

Adding two numbers, will return the sum, but adding a number and a string will return a string:

Example

x = 5 + 5;
y = "5" + 5;
z = "Hello" + 5;

The result of x, y, and z will be:

10
55
Hello5
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The rule is: If you add a number and a string, the result will be a string!


JavaScript Comparison Operators

Operator Description
== equal to
=== equal value and equal type
!= not equal
!== not equal value or not equal type
> greater than
< less than
>= greater than or equal to
<= less than or equal to
? ternary operator

JavaScript Logical Operators

Operator Description
&& logical and
|| logical or
! logical not

Comparison and logical operators are described in the JS Comparisons chapter.


JavaScript Type Operators

Operator Description
typeof Returns the type of a variable
instanceof Returns true if an object is an instance of an object type

Type operators are described in the JS Type Conversion chapter.


JavaScript Bitwise Operators

Bit operators work on 32 bits numbers. Any numeric operand in the operation is converted into a 32 bit number. The result is converted back to a JavaScript number.

Operator Description Example Same as Result Decimal
& AND x = 5 & 1 0101 & 0001 0001  1
| OR x = 5 | 1 0101 | 0001 0101  5
~ NOT x = ~ 5  ~0101 1010  10
^ XOR x = 5 ^ 1 0101 ^ 0001 0100  4
<< Zero fill left shift x = 5 << 1 0101 << 1 1010  10
>> Signed right shift x = 5 >> 1 0101 >> 1 0010   2
>>> Zero fill right shift x = 5 >>> 1 0101 >>> 1 0010   2

The examples above uses 4 bits unsigned examples. But JavaScript uses 32-bit signed numbers.

Bitwise operators are explained in the JS Bitwise chapter.