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SQL DEFAULT Constraint


SQL DEFAULT Constraint

The DEFAULT constraint is used to insert a default value into a column.

The default value will be added to all new records, if no other value is specified.


SQL DEFAULT Constraint on CREATE TABLE

The following SQL creates a DEFAULT constraint on the "City" column when the "Persons" table is created:

My SQL / SQL Server / Oracle / MS Access:

CREATE TABLE Persons
(
P_Id int NOT NULL,
LastName varchar(255) NOT NULL,
FirstName varchar(255),
Address varchar(255),
City varchar(255) DEFAULT 'Sandnes'
)

The DEFAULT constraint can also be used to insert system values, by using functions like GETDATE():

CREATE TABLE Orders
(
O_Id int NOT NULL,
OrderNo int NOT NULL,
P_Id int,
OrderDate date DEFAULT GETDATE()
)


SQL DEFAULT Constraint on ALTER TABLE

To create a DEFAULT constraint on the "City" column when the table is already created, use the following SQL:

MySQL:

ALTER TABLE Persons
ALTER City SET DEFAULT 'SANDNES'

SQL Server / MS Access:

ALTER TABLE Persons
ALTER COLUMN City SET DEFAULT 'SANDNES'

Oracle:

ALTER TABLE Persons
MODIFY City DEFAULT 'SANDNES'


To DROP a DEFAULT Constraint

To drop a DEFAULT constraint, use the following SQL:

MySQL:

ALTER TABLE Persons
ALTER City DROP DEFAULT

SQL Server / Oracle / MS Access:

ALTER TABLE Persons
ALTER COLUMN City DROP DEFAULT


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