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PHP MySQL Use The WHERE Clause


Select and Filter Data From a MySQL Database

The WHERE clause is used to filter records.

The WHERE clause is used to extract only those records that fulfill a specified condition.

SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name WHERE column_name operator value 

To learn more about SQL, please visit our SQL tutorial.


Select and Filter Data With MySQLi

The following example selects the id, firstname and lastname columns from the MyGuests table where the lastname is "Doe", and displays it on the page:

Example (MySQLi Object-oriented)

<?php
$servername = "localhost";
$username = "username";
$password = "password";
$dbname = "myDB";

// Create connection
$conn = new mysqli($servername, $username, $password, $dbname);
// Check connection
if ($conn->connect_error) {
  die("Connection failed: " . $conn->connect_error);
}

$sql = "SELECT id, firstname, lastname FROM MyGuests WHERE lastname='Doe'";
$result = $conn->query($sql);

if ($result->num_rows > 0) {
  // output data of each row
  while($row = $result->fetch_assoc()) {
    echo "id: " . $row["id"]. " - Name: " . $row["firstname"]. " " . $row["lastname"]. "<br>";
  }
} else {
  echo "0 results";
}
$conn->close();
?>
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Code lines to explain from the example above:

First, we set up the SQL query that selects the id, firstname and lastname columns from the MyGuests table where the lastname is "Doe". The next line of code runs the query and puts the resulting data into a variable called $result.

Then, the function num_rows() checks if there are more than zero rows returned.

If there are more than zero rows returned, the function fetch_assoc() puts all the results into an associative array that we can loop through. The while() loop loops through the result set and outputs the data from the id, firstname and lastname columns.

The following example shows the same as the example above, in the MySQLi procedural way:

Example (MySQLi Procedural)

<?php
$servername = "localhost";
$username = "username";
$password = "password";
$dbname = "myDB";

// Create connection
$conn = mysqli_connect($servername, $username, $password, $dbname);
// Check connection
if (!$conn) {
  die("Connection failed: " . mysqli_connect_error());
}

$sql = "SELECT id, firstname, lastname FROM MyGuests WHERE lastname='Doe'";
$result = mysqli_query($conn, $sql);

if (mysqli_num_rows($result) > 0) {
  // output data of each row
  while($row = mysqli_fetch_assoc($result)) {
    echo "id: " . $row["id"]. " - Name: " . $row["firstname"]. " " . $row["lastname"]. "<br>";
  }
} else {
  echo "0 results";
}

mysqli_close($conn);
?>
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You can also put the result in an HTML table:

Example (MySQLi Object-oriented)

<?php
$servername = "localhost";
$username = "username";
$password = "password";
$dbname = "myDB";

// Create connection
$conn = new mysqli($servername, $username, $password, $dbname);
// Check connection
if ($conn->connect_error) {
  die("Connection failed: " . $conn->connect_error);
}

$sql = "SELECT id, firstname, lastname FROM MyGuests WHERE lastname='Doe'";
$result = $conn->query($sql);

if ($result->num_rows > 0) {
  echo "<table><tr><th>ID</th><th>Name</th></tr>";
  // output data of each row
  while($row = $result->fetch_assoc()) {
    echo "<tr><td>".$row["id"]."</td><td>".$row["firstname"]." ".$row["lastname"]."</td></tr>";
  }
  echo "</table>";
} else {
  echo "0 results";
}
$conn->close();
?>
Run example »

Select Data With PDO (+ Prepared Statements)

The following example uses prepared statements.

It selects the id, firstname and lastname columns from the MyGuests table where the lastname is "Doe", and displays it in an HTML table:

Example (PDO)

<?php
echo "<table style='border: solid 1px black;'>";
echo "<tr><th>Id</th><th>Firstname</th><th>Lastname</th></tr>";

class TableRows extends RecursiveIteratorIterator {
  function __construct($it) {
    parent::__construct($it, self::LEAVES_ONLY);
  }

  function current() {
    return "<td style='width:150px;border:1px solid black;'>" . parent::current(). "</td>";
  }

  function beginChildren() {
    echo "<tr>";
  }

  function endChildren() {
    echo "</tr>" . "\n";
  }
}

$servername = "localhost";
$username = "username";
$password = "password";
$dbname = "myDBPDO";

try {
  $conn = new PDO("mysql:host=$servername;dbname=$dbname", $username, $password);
  $conn->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE, PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION);
  $stmt = $conn->prepare("SELECT id, firstname, lastname FROM MyGuests WHERE lastname='Doe'");
  $stmt->execute();

  // set the resulting array to associative
  $result = $stmt->setFetchMode(PDO::FETCH_ASSOC);
  foreach(new TableRows(new RecursiveArrayIterator($stmt->fetchAll())) as $k=>$v) {
    echo $v;
  }
}
catch(PDOException $e) {
  echo "Error: " . $e->getMessage();
}
$conn = null;
echo "</table>";
?>
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