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React State


React components has a built-in state object.

The state object is where you store property values that belongs to the component.

When the state object changes, the component re-renders.


Creating the state Object

The state object is initialized in the constructor:

Example:

Specify the state object in the constructor method:

class Car extends React.Component {
  constructor(props) {
    super(props);
    this.state = {brand: "Ford"};
  }
  render() {
    return (
      <div>
        <h1>My Car</h1>
      </div>
    );
  }
}

The state object can contain as many properties as you like:

Example:

Specify all the properties your component need:

class Car extends React.Component {
  constructor(props) {
    super(props);
    this.state = {
      brand: "Ford",
      model: "Mustang",
      color: "red",
      year: 1964
    };
  }
  render() {
    return (
      <div>
        <h1>My Car</h1>
      </div>
    );
  }
}


Using the state Object

Refer to the state object anywhere in the component by using the this.state.propertyname syntax:

Example:

Refer to the state object in the render() method:

class Car extends React.Component {
  constructor(props) {
    super(props);
    this.state = {
      brand: "Ford",
      model: "Mustang",
      color: "red",
      year: 1964
    };
  }
  render() {
    return (
      <div>
        <h1>My {this.state.brand}</h1>
        <p>
          It is a {this.state.color}
          {this.state.model}
          from {this.state.year}.
        </p>
      </div>
    );
  }
}

Run Example »


Changing the state Object

To change a value in the state object, use the this.setState() method.

When a value in the state object changes, the component will re-render, meaning that the output will change according to the new value(s).

Example:

Add a button with an onClick event that will change the color property:

class Car extends React.Component {
  constructor(props) {
    super(props);
    this.state = {
      brand: "Ford",
      model: "Mustang",
      color: "red",
      year: 1964
    };
  }
  changeColor = () => {
    this.setState({color: "blue"});
  }
  render() {
    return (
      <div>
        <h1>My {this.state.brand}</h1>
        <p>
          It is a {this.state.color}
          {this.state.model}
          from {this.state.year}.
        </p>
        <button
          type="button"
          onClick={this.changeColor}
        >Change color</button>
      </div>
    );
  }
}

Run Example »

Always use the setState() method to change the state object, it will ensure that the component knows its been updated and calls the render() method (and all the other lifecycle methods).