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# PHP 5 Operators

## PHP Operators

Operators are used to perform operations on variables and values.

PHP divides the operators in the following groups:

• Arithmetic operators
• Assignment operators
• Comparison operators
• Increment/Decrement operators
• Logical operators
• String operators
• Array operators

## PHP Arithmetic Operators

The PHP arithmetic operators are used with numeric values to perform common arithmetical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication etc.

Operator Name Example Result Show it
+ Addition \$x + \$y Sum of \$x and \$y Show it »
- Subtraction \$x - \$y Difference of \$x and \$y Show it »
* Multiplication \$x * \$y Product of \$x and \$y Show it »
/ Division \$x / \$y Quotient of \$x and \$y Show it »
% Modulus \$x % \$y Remainder of \$x divided by \$y Show it »
** Exponentiation \$x ** \$y Result of raising \$x to the \$y'th power (Introduced in PHP 5.6)

## PHP Assignment Operators

The PHP assignment operators are used with numeric values to write a value to a variable.

The basic assignment operator in PHP is "=". It means that the left operand gets set to the value of the assignment expression on the right.

Assignment Same as... Description Show it
x = y x = y The left operand gets set to the value of the expression on the right Show it »
x += y x = x + y Addition Show it »
x -= y x = x - y Subtraction Show it »
x *= y x = x * y Multiplication Show it »
x /= y x = x / y Division Show it »
x %= y x = x % y Modulus Show it »

## PHP Comparison Operators

The PHP comparison operators are used to compare two values (number or string):

Operator Name Example Result Show it
== Equal \$x == \$y Returns true if \$x is equal to \$y Show it »
=== Identical \$x === \$y Returns true if \$x is equal to \$y, and they are of the same type Show it »
!= Not equal \$x != \$y Returns true if \$x is not equal to \$y Show it »
<> Not equal \$x <> \$y Returns true if \$x is not equal to \$y Show it »
!== Not identical \$x !== \$y Returns true if \$x is not equal to \$y, or they are not of the same type Show it »
> Greater than \$x > \$y Returns true if \$x is greater than \$y Show it »
< Less than \$x < \$y Returns true if \$x is less than \$y Show it »
>= Greater than or equal to \$x >= \$y Returns true if \$x is greater than or equal to \$y Show it »
<= Less than or equal to \$x <= \$y Returns true if \$x is less than or equal to \$y Show it »

## PHP Increment / Decrement Operators

The PHP increment operators are used to increment a variable's value.

The PHP decrement operators are used to decrement a variable's value.

Operator Name Description Show it
++\$x Pre-increment Increments \$x by one, then returns \$x Show it »
\$x++ Post-increment Returns \$x, then increments \$x by one Show it »
--\$x Pre-decrement Decrements \$x by one, then returns \$x Show it »
\$x-- Post-decrement Returns \$x, then decrements \$x by one Show it »

## PHP Logical Operators

The PHP logical operators are used to combine conditional statements.

Operator Name Example Result Show it
and And \$x and \$y True if both \$x and \$y are true Show it »
or Or \$x or \$y True if either \$x or \$y is true Show it »
xor Xor \$x xor \$y True if either \$x or \$y is true, but not both Show it »
&& And \$x && \$y True if both \$x and \$y are true Show it »
|| Or \$x || \$y True if either \$x or \$y is true Show it »
! Not !\$x True if \$x is not true Show it »

## PHP String Operators

PHP has two operators that are specially designed for strings.

Operator Name Example Result Show it
. Concatenation \$txt1 . \$txt2 Concatenation of \$txt1 and \$txt2 Show it »
.= Concatenation assignment \$txt1 .= \$txt2 Appends \$txt2 to \$txt1 Show it »

## PHP Array Operators

The PHP array operators are used to compare arrays.

Operator Name Example Result Show it
+ Union \$x + \$y Union of \$x and \$y Show it »
== Equality \$x == \$y Returns true if \$x and \$y have the same key/value pairs Show it »
=== Identity \$x === \$y Returns true if \$x and \$y have the same key/value pairs in the same order and of the same types Show it »
!= Inequality \$x != \$y Returns true if \$x is not equal to \$y Show it »
<> Inequality \$x <> \$y Returns true if \$x is not equal to \$y Show it »
!== Non-identity \$x !== \$y Returns true if \$x is not identical to \$y Show it »

## Exercise:

Multiply `10` with `5`, and output the result.

```echo 10  5;
```