THE WORLD'S LARGEST WEB DEVELOPER SITE

Python Strings


String Literals

String literals in python are surrounded by either single quotation marks, or double quotation marks.

'hello' is the same as "hello".

You can display a string literal with the print() function:

Example

print("Hello")
print('Hello')
Run example »

Assign String to a Variable

Assigning a string to a variable is done with the variable name followed by an equal sign and the string:

Example

a = "Hello"
print(a)
Run example »

Multiline Strings

You can assign a multiline string to a variable by using three quotes:

Example

You can use three double quotes:

a = """Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet,
consectetur adipiscing elit,
sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt
ut labore et dolore magna aliqua."""
print(a)
Run example »

Or three single quotes:

Example

a = '''Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet,
consectetur adipiscing elit,
sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt
ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.'''
print(a)
Run example »

Note: in the result, the line breaks are inserted at the same position as in the code.



Strings are Arrays

Like many other popular programming languages, strings in Python are arrays of bytes representing unicode characters.

However, Python does not have a character data type, a single character is simply a string with a length of 1. Square brackets can be used to access elements of the string.

Example

Get the character at position 1 (remember that the first character has the position 0):

a = "Hello, World!"
print(a[1])
Run example »

Example

Substring. Get the characters from position 2 to position 5 (not included):

b = "Hello, World!"
print(b[2:5])
Run example »

Example

The strip() method removes any whitespace from the beginning or the end:

a = " Hello, World! "
print(a.strip()) # returns "Hello, World!"
Run example »

Example

The len() method returns the length of a string:

a = "Hello, World!"
print(len(a))
Run example »

Example

The lower() method returns the string in lower case:

a = "Hello, World!"
print(a.lower())
Run example »

Example

The upper() method returns the string in upper case:

a = "Hello, World!"
print(a.upper())
Run example »

Example

The replace() method replaces a string with another string:

a = "Hello, World!"
print(a.replace("H", "J"))
Run example »

Example

The split() method splits the string into substrings if it finds instances of the separator:

a = "Hello, World!"
print(a.split(",")) # returns ['Hello', ' World!']
Run example »

Learn more about String Methods with our String Methods Reference


String Format

As we learned in the Python Variables chapter, we cannot combine strings and numbers like this:

Example

age = 36
txt = "My name is John, I am " + age
print(txt)
Run example »

But we can combine strings and numbers by using the format() method!

The format() method takes the passed arguments, formats them, and places them in the string where the placeholders {} are:

Example

Use the format() method to insert numbers into strings:

age = 36
txt = "My name is John, and I am {}"
print(txt.format(age))
Run example »

The format() method takes unlimited number of arguments, and are placed into the respective placeholders:

Example

quantity = 3
itemno = 567
price = 49.95
myorder = "I want {} pieces of item {} for {} dollars."
print(myorder.format(quantity, itemno, price))
Run example »

You can use index numbers {0} to be sure the arguments are placed in the correct placeholders:

Example

quantity = 3
itemno = 567
price = 49.95
myorder = "I want to pay {2} dollars for {0} pieces of item {1}."
print(myorder.format(quantity, itemno, price))
Run example »

Test Yourself With Exercises

Exercise:

Use the len method to print the length of the string.

x = "Hello World"
print()

Start the Exercise