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HTML id Attribute


The HTML id attribute is used to specify a unique id for an HTML element.

You cannot have more than one element with the same id in an HTML document.


Using The id Attribute

The id attribute specifies a unique id for an HTML element. The value of the id attribute must be unique within the HTML document.

The id attribute is used to point to a specific style declaration in a style sheet. It is also used by JavaScript to access and manipulate the element with the specific id.

The syntax for id is: write a hash character (#) character, followed by an id name. Then, define the CSS properties within curly braces {}.

In the following example we have an <h1> element that points to the id name "myHeader". This <h1> element will be styled according to the #myHeader style definition in the head section:

Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
#myHeader {
  background-color: lightblue;
  color: black;
  padding: 40px;
  text-align: center;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h1 id="myHeader">My Header</h1>

</body>
</html>
Try it Yourself »

Note: The id name is case sensitive!

Note: The id name must contain at least one character, and must not contain whitespaces (spaces, tabs, etc.).


Difference Between Class and ID

A class name can be used by multiple HTML elements, while an id name must only be used by one HTML element within the page:

Example

<style>
/* Style the element with the id "myHeader" */
#myHeader {
  background-color: lightblue;
  color: black;
  padding: 40px;
  text-align: center;
}

/* Style all elements with the class name "city" */
.city {
  background-color: tomato;
  color: white;
  padding: 10px;
}
</style>

<!-- An element with a unique id -->
<h1 id="myHeader">My Cities</h1>

<!-- Multiple elements with same class -->
<h2 class="city">London</h2>
<p>London is the capital of England.</p>

<h2 class="city">Paris</h2>
<p>Paris is the capital of France.</p>

<h2 class="city">Tokyo</h2>
<p>Tokyo is the capital of Japan.</p>
Try it Yourself »

Tip: You can learn much more about CSS in our CSS Tutorial.



HTML Bookmarks with ID and Links

HTML bookmarks are used to allow readers to jump to specific parts of a webpage.

Bookmarks can be useful if your page is very long.

To use a bookmark, you must first create it, and then add a link to it.

Then, when the link is clicked, the page will scroll to the location with the bookmark.

Example

First, create a bookmark with the id attribute:

<h2 id="C4">Chapter 4</h2>

Then, add a link to the bookmark ("Jump to Chapter 4"), from within the same page:

Example

<a href="#C4">Jump to Chapter 4</a>
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Or, add a link to the bookmark ("Jump to Chapter 4"), from another page:

<a href="html_demo.html#C4">Jump to Chapter 4</a>

Using The id Attribute in JavaScript

The id attribute can also be used by JavaScript to perform some tasks for that specific element.

JavaScript can access an element with a specific id with the getElementById() method:

Example

Use the id attribute to manipulate text with JavaScript:

<script>
function displayResult() {
  document.getElementById("myHeader").innerHTML = "Have a nice day!";
}
</script>
Try it Yourself »

Tip: Study JavaScript in the HTML JavaScript chapter, or in our JavaScript Tutorial.


Chapter Summary

  • The id attribute is used to specify a unique id for an HTML element
  • The value of the id attribute must be unique within the HTML document
  • The id attribute is used by CSS and JavaScript to style/select a specific element
  • The value of the id attribute is case sensitive
  • The id attribute is also used to create HTML bookmarks
  • JavaScript can access an element with a specific id with the getElementById() method

HTML Exercises

Test Yourself With Exercises

Exercise:

Add the correct HTML attribute to make the H1 element red.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
#myheader {color:red;}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h1 >My Home Page</h1>

</body>
</html>

Start the Exercise