THE WORLD'S LARGEST WEB DEVELOPER SITE

PHP Tutorial

PHP HOME PHP Intro PHP Install PHP Syntax PHP Comments PHP Variables PHP Echo / Print PHP Data Types PHP Strings PHP Numbers PHP Constants PHP Operators PHP If...Else...Elseif PHP Switch PHP While Loops PHP For Loops PHP Functions PHP Arrays PHP Sorting Arrays PHP Superglobals

PHP Forms

PHP Form Handling PHP Form Validation PHP Form Required PHP Form URL/E-mail PHP Form Complete

PHP Advanced

PHP Arrays Multi PHP Date and Time PHP Include PHP File Handling PHP File Open/Read PHP File Create/Write PHP File Upload PHP Cookies PHP Sessions PHP Filters PHP Filters Advanced

PHP OOP

PHP What is OOP PHP Classes/Objects PHP Constructor PHP Destructor PHP Access Modifiers PHP Inheritance PHP Constants PHP Abstract Classes PHP Traits PHP Static Methods

MySQL Database

MySQL Database MySQL Connect MySQL Create DB MySQL Create Table MySQL Insert Data MySQL Get Last ID MySQL Insert Multiple MySQL Prepared MySQL Select Data MySQL Delete Data MySQL Update Data MySQL Limit Data

PHP XML

PHP XML Parsers PHP SimpleXML Parser PHP SimpleXML - Get PHP XML Expat PHP XML DOM

PHP - AJAX

AJAX Intro AJAX PHP AJAX Database AJAX XML AJAX Live Search AJAX Poll

PHP Examples

PHP Examples PHP Quiz PHP Exercises PHP Certificate

PHP Reference

PHP Overview PHP Array PHP Calendar PHP Date PHP Directory PHP Error PHP Filesystem PHP Filter PHP FTP PHP Libxml PHP Mail PHP Math PHP Misc PHP MySQLi PHP Network PHP SimpleXML PHP Stream PHP String PHP XML Parser PHP Zip PHP Timezones

PHP Include Files


The include (or require) statement takes all the text/code/markup that exists in the specified file and copies it into the file that uses the include statement.

Including files is very useful when you want to include the same PHP, HTML, or text on multiple pages of a website.


PHP include and require Statements

It is possible to insert the content of one PHP file into another PHP file (before the server executes it), with the include or require statement.

The include and require statements are identical, except upon failure:

  • require will produce a fatal error (E_COMPILE_ERROR) and stop the script
  • include will only produce a warning (E_WARNING) and the script will continue

So, if you want the execution to go on and show users the output, even if the include file is missing, use the include statement. Otherwise, in case of FrameWork, CMS, or a complex PHP application coding, always use the require statement to include a key file to the flow of execution. This will help avoid compromising your application's security and integrity, just in-case one key file is accidentally missing.

Including files saves a lot of work. This means that you can create a standard header, footer, or menu file for all your web pages. Then, when the header needs to be updated, you can only update the header include file.

Syntax

include 'filename';

or

require 'filename';

PHP include Examples

Example 1

Assume we have a standard footer file called "footer.php", that looks like this:

<?php
echo "<p>Copyright &copy; 1999-" . date("Y") . " W3Schools.com</p>";
?>

To include the footer file in a page, use the include statement:

Example

<html>
<body>

<h1>Welcome to my home page!</h1>
<p>Some text.</p>
<p>Some more text.</p>
<?php include 'footer.php';?>

</body>
</html>
Run example »


Example 2

Assume we have a standard menu file called "menu.php":

<?php
echo '<a href="/default.asp">Home</a> -
<a href="/html/default.asp">HTML Tutorial</a> -
<a href="/css/default.asp">CSS Tutorial</a> -
<a href="/js/default.asp">JavaScript Tutorial</a> -
<a href="default.asp">PHP Tutorial</a>';
?>

All pages in the Web site should use this menu file. Here is how it can be done (we are using a <div> element so that the menu easily can be styled with CSS later):

Example

<html>
<body>

<div class="menu">
<?php include 'menu.php';?>
</div>

<h1>Welcome to my home page!</h1>
<p>Some text.</p>
<p>Some more text.</p>

</body>
</html>
Run example »

Example 3

Assume we have a file called "vars.php", with some variables defined:

<?php
$color='red';
$car='BMW';
?>

Then, if we include the "vars.php" file, the variables can be used in the calling file:

Example

<html>
<body>

<h1>Welcome to my home page!</h1>
<?php include 'vars.php';
echo "I have a $color $car.";
?>

</body>
</html>
Run example »

PHP include vs. require

The require statement is also used to include a file into the PHP code.

However, there is one big difference between include and require; when a file is included with the include statement and PHP cannot find it, the script will continue to execute:

Example

<html>
<body>

<h1>Welcome to my home page!</h1>
<?php include 'noFileExists.php';
echo "I have a $color $car.";
?>

</body>
</html>
Run example »

If we do the same example using the require statement, the echo statement will not be executed because the script execution dies after the require statement returned a fatal error:

Example

<html>
<body>

<h1>Welcome to my home page!</h1>
<?php require 'noFileExists.php';
echo "I have a $color $car.";
?>

</body>
</html>
Run example »

Use require when the file is required by the application.

Use include when the file is not required and application should continue when file is not found.


PHP Exercises

Test Yourself With Exercises

Exercise:

Write a correct syntax to include a file named "footer.php".

<?php ;?>