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PHP substr() Function

❮ PHP String Reference


Return "world" from the string:

echo substr("Hello world",6);
Try it Yourself »

Definition and Usage

The substr() function returns a part of a string.



Parameter Values

Parameter Description
string Required. Specifies the string to return a part of
start Required. Specifies where to start in the string
  • A positive number - Start at a specified position in the string
  • A negative number - Start at a specified position from the end of the string
  • 0 - Start at the first character in string
length Optional. Specifies the length of the returned string. Default is to the end of the string.
  • A positive number - The length to be returned from the start parameter
  • Negative number - The length to be returned from the end of the string
  • If the length parameter is 0, NULL, or FALSE - it return an empty string

Technical Details

Return Value: Returns the extracted part of a string, or FALSE on failure, or an empty string
PHP Version: 4+
Changelog: PHP 7.0 - If string = start (in characters long), it will return an empty string. Earlier versions returns FALSE.
PHP 5.2.2 - 5.2.6 - If start has the position of a negative truncation, FALSE is returned. Other versions get the string from start.

More Examples


Using the start parameter with different positive and negative numbers:

echo substr("Hello world",10)."<br>";
echo substr("Hello world",1)."<br>";
echo substr("Hello world",3)."<br>";
echo substr("Hello world",7)."<br>";

echo substr("Hello world",-1)."<br>";
echo substr("Hello world",-10)."<br>";
echo substr("Hello world",-8)."<br>";
echo substr("Hello world",-4)."<br>";
Try it Yourself »


Using the start and length parameters with different positive and negative numbers:

echo substr("Hello world",0,10)."<br>";
echo substr("Hello world",1,8)."<br>";
echo substr("Hello world",0,5)."<br>";
echo substr("Hello world",6,6)."<br>";

echo substr("Hello world",0,-1)."<br>";
echo substr("Hello world",-10,-2)."<br>";
echo substr("Hello world",0,-6)."<br>";
Try it Yourself »

❮ PHP String Reference