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What is Responsive Web Design?


HTML

Responsive Web Design is about using HTML and CSS to automatically resize a website.

Responsive Web Design is about making a website look good on all devices (desktops, tablets, and phones):


Responsive

Setting The Viewport

When making responsive web pages, add the following <meta> element to all your web pages:

Example

<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
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Media Queries

Media Queries plays an important role in responsive web pages.

With media queries you can define different styles for different browser sizes.

Example:
Resize the browser window to see that the three elements below will display horizontally on large screens and vertically on small screens:

Main Content


Right


Example

<style>
.left, .right {
  float: left;
  width: 20%; /* The width is 20%, by default */
}

.main {
  float: left;
  width: 60%; /* The width is 60%, by default */
}

/* Use Media Query to add a breakpoint at 800px: */
@media screen and (max-width:800px) {
  .left , .main, .right {width:100%;}
}
</style>
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Learn more about Responsive Web Design at W3Schools' RWD Tutorial


Responsive Images

Responsive images are images that scale nicely to fit any browser size.

When the CSS width property is set to a percentage value, an image will scale up and down when resizing the browser window.

This image is responsive:

Example

<img src="img_girl.jpg" style="width:80%;height:auto;">
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If the max-width property is set to 100%, the image will scale down if it has to, but never scale up to be larger than its original size:

Example

<img src="img_girl.jpg" style="max-width:100%;height:auto;">
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Image Depending on Browser Size

The HTML <picture> element allows you to define different images for different browser window sizes.

Example

<picture>
  <source srcset="img_smallflower.jpg" media="(max-width: 600px)">
  <source srcset="img_flowers.jpg" media="(max-width: 1500px)">
  <source srcset="flowers.jpg">
  <img src="img_smallflower.jpg" alt="Flowers">
</picture>
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Responsive W3.CSS

W3.CSS is a free CSS Framework that offers Responsive Design by default.

W3.CSS makes it easy to develop sites that look nice on any device; desktop, laptop, tablet, or phone:

Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">
<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://www.w3schools.com/w3css/4/w3.css">
<body>

<div class="w3-center w3-padding-64 w3-light-grey">
  <h1>My W3.CSS Page</h1>
  <p>Resize this page to see the responsive effect!</p>
</div>

<div class="w3-row-padding">
  <div class="w3-third">
    <h2>London</h2>
    <p>London is the capital city of England.</p>
    <p>It is the most populous city in the United Kingdom,
    with a metropolitan area of over 13 million inhabitants.</p>
  </div>

  <div class="w3-third">
    <h2>Paris</h2>
    <p>Paris is the capital of France.</p>
    <p>The Paris area is one of the largest population centers in Europe,
    with more than 12 million inhabitants.</p>
  </div>

  <div class="w3-third">
    <h2>Tokyo</h2>
    <p>Tokyo is the capital of Japan.</p>
    <p>It is the center of the Greater Tokyo Area,
    and the most populous metropolitan area in the world.</p>
  </div>
</div>

</body>
</html>
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To learn more about W3.CSS, go to our W3.CSS Tutorial.


Bootstrap

Bootstrap is a very popular framework that uses HTML, CSS and jQuery to make responsive web pages.

Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
<title>Bootstrap Example</title>
<meta charset="utf-8">
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">
<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.1.3/css/bootstrap.min.css">
<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.3.1/jquery.min.js"></script>
<script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/popper.js/1.14.3/umd/popper.min.js"></script>
<script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.1.3/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>
</head>
<body>

<div class="jumbotron text-center">
  <h1>My First Bootstrap Page</h1>
  <p>Resize this responsive page to see the effect!</p>
</div>

<div class="container-fluid">
  <div class="row">
    <div class="col-sm-4">
      <h2>London</h2>
      <p>London is the capital city of England.</p>
      <p>It is the most populous city in the United Kingdom,
      with a metropolitan area of over 13 million inhabitants.</p>
    </div>
    <div class="col-sm-4">
      <h2>Paris</h2>
      <p>Paris is the capital of France.</p>
      <p>The Paris area is one of the largest population centers in Europe,
      with more than 12 million inhabitants.</p>
    </div>
    <div class="col-sm-4">
      <h2>Tokyo</h2>
      <p>Tokyo is the capital of Japan.</p>
      <p>It is the center of the Greater Tokyo Area,
      and the most populous metropolitan area in the world.</p>
    </div>
  </div>
</div>

</body>
</html>
Try it Yourself »

To learn more about Bootstrap, go to our Bootstrap Tutorial.