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PHP 5 Operators


This chapter shows the different operators that can be used in PHP scripts.


PHP Arithmetic Operators

Operator Name Example Result
+ Addition $x + $y Sum of $x and $y
- Subtraction $x - $y Difference of $x and $y
* Multiplication $x * $y Product of $x and $y
/ Division $x / $y Quotient of $x and $y
% Modulus $x % $y Remainder of $x divided by $y
** Exponentiation $x ** $y Result of raising $x to the $y'th power (Introduced in PHP 5.6)

The example below shows the different results of using the different arithmetic operators:

Example

<?php
$x=10;
$y=6;
echo ($x + $y); // outputs 16
echo ($x - $y); // outputs 4
echo ($x * $y); // outputs 60
echo ($x / $y); // outputs 1.6666666666667
echo ($x % $y); // outputs 4
?>

Run example »


PHP Assignment Operators

The PHP assignment operators is used to write a value to a variable.

The basic assignment operator in PHP is "=". It means that the left operand gets set to the value of the assignment expression on the right.

Assignment Same as... Description
x = y x = y The left operand gets set to the value of the expression on the right
x += y x = x + y Addition
x -= y x = x - y Subtraction
x *= y x = x * y Multiplication
x /= y x = x / y Division
x %= y x = x % y Modulus

The example below shows the different results of using the different assignment operators:

Example

<?php
$x=10;
echo $x; // outputs 10

$y=20;
$y += 100;
echo $y; // outputs 120

$z=50;
$z -= 25;
echo $z; // outputs 25

$i=5;
$i *= 6;
echo $i; // outputs 30

$j=10;
$j /= 5;
echo $j; // outputs 2

$k=15;
$k %= 4;
echo $k; // outputs 3
?>

Run example »


PHP String Operators

Operator Name Example Result
. Concatenation $txt1 = "Hello"
$txt2 = $txt1 . " world!"
Now $txt2 contains "Hello world!"
.= Concatenation assignment $txt1 = "Hello"
$txt1 .= " world!"
Now $txt1 contains "Hello world!"

The example below shows the results of using the string operators:

Example

<?php
$a = "Hello";
$b = $a . " world!";
echo $b; // outputs Hello world!

$x="Hello";
$x .= " world!";
echo $x; // outputs Hello world!
?>

Run example »


PHP Increment / Decrement Operators

Operator Name Description
++$x Pre-increment Increments $x by one, then returns $x
$x++ Post-increment Returns $x, then increments $x by one
--$x Pre-decrement Decrements $x by one, then returns $x
$x-- Post-decrement Returns $x, then decrements $x by one

The example below shows the different results of using the different increment/decrement operators:

Example

<?php
$x=10;
echo ++$x; // outputs 11

$y=10;
echo $y++; // outputs 10

$z=5;
echo --$z; // outputs 4

$i=5;
echo $i--; // outputs 5
?>

Run example »


PHP Comparison Operators

The PHP comparison operators are used to compare two values (number or string):

Operator Name Example Result
== Equal $x == $y True if $x is equal to $y
=== Identical $x === $y True if $x is equal to $y, and they are of the same type
!= Not equal $x != $y True if $x is not equal to $y
<> Not equal $x <> $y True if $x is not equal to $y
!== Not identical $x !== $y True if $x is not equal to $y, or they are not of the same type
> Greater than $x > $y True if $x is greater than $y
< Less than $x < $y True if $x is less than $y
>= Greater than or equal to $x >= $y True if $x is greater than or equal to $y
<= Less than or equal to $x <= $y True if $x is less than or equal to $y

The example below shows the different results of using some of the comparison operators:

Example

<?php
$x=100;
$y="100";

var_dump($x == $y);
echo "<br>";
var_dump($x === $y);
echo "<br>";
var_dump($x != $y);
echo "<br>";
var_dump($x !== $y);
echo "<br>";

$a=50;
$b=90;

var_dump($a > $b);
echo "<br>";
var_dump($a < $b);
?>

Run example »


PHP Logical Operators

Operator Name Example Result
and And $x and $y True if both $x and $y are true
or Or $x or $y True if either $x or $y is true
xor Xor $x xor $y True if either $x or $y is true, but not both
&& And $x && $y True if both $x and $y are true
|| Or $x || $y True if either $x or $y is true
! Not !$x True if $x is not true


PHP Array Operators

The PHP array operators are used to compare arrays:

Operator Name Example Result
+ Union $x + $y Union of $x and $y (but duplicate keys are not overwritten)
== Equality $x == $y True if $x and $y have the same key/value pairs
=== Identity $x === $y True if $x and $y have the same key/value pairs in the same order and of the same types
!= Inequality $x != $y True if $x is not equal to $y
<> Inequality $x <> $y True if $x is not equal to $y
!== Non-identity $x !== $y True if $x is not identical to $y

The example below shows the different results of using the different array operators:

Example

<?php
$x = array("a" => "red", "b" => "green");
$y = array("c" => "blue", "d" => "yellow");
$z = $x + $y; // union of $x and $y
var_dump($z);
var_dump($x == $y);
var_dump($x === $y);
var_dump($x != $y);
var_dump($x <> $y);
var_dump($x !== $y);
?>

Run example »



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