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ECMAScript 2016

The JavaScript naming convention started with ES1, ES2, ES3, ES5 and ES6.

But, ECMAScript 2016 and 2017 was not called ES7 and ES8.

Since 2016 new versions are named by year (ECMAScript 2016 / 2017 / 2018).

New Features in ECMAScript 2016

This chapter introduces the new features in ECMAScript 2016:

  • JavaScript Exponentiation (**)
  • JavaScript Exponentiation assignment (**=)
  • JavaScript Array.prototype.includes

Exponentiation Operator

The exponentiation operator (**) raises the first operand to the power of the second operand.

Example

let x = 5;
let z = x ** 2;          // result is 25
Try it Yourself »

x ** y produces the same result as Math.pow(x, y):

Example

let x = 5;
let z = Math.pow(x,2);   // result is 25
Try it Yourself »

Exponentiation Assignment

The exponentiation assignment operator (**=) raises the value of a variable to the power of the right operand.

Example

let x = 5;
x **= 2; // result 25
Try it Yourself »

Chrome 52 and Edge 14 was the first browsers to fully support the Exponentiation Operator:

Chrome 52 Edge 14 Firefox 52 Safari 10.1 Opera 39
Jul 2016 Aug 2016 Mar 2017 Mar 2017 Aug 2016


JavaScript Array.includes()

ECMAScript 2016 introduced Array.prototype.includes to arrays. This allows us to check if an element is present in an array:

Example

const fruits = ["Banana", "Orange", "Apple", "Mango"];

fruits.includes("Mango"); // is true
Try it Yourself »

All modern browsers support Array.prototype.includes:

Chrome 47 Edge 14 Firefox 43 Safari 9 Opera 34
Dec 2015 Aug 2016 Dec 2015 Oct 2015 Dec 2015