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JavaScript Array Iteration


Array iteration methods operate on every array item.


The Array forEach() Method

The forEach() method calls a function (a callback function) once for each array element.

Example

const numbers = [45, 4, 9, 16, 25];
let txt = "";
numbers.forEach(myFunction);

function myFunction(value, index, array) {
  txt += value + "<br>";
}
Try it Yourself »

Note that the function takes 3 arguments:

  • The item value
  • The item index
  • The array itself

The example above uses only the value parameter. The example can be rewritten to:

Example

const numbers = [45, 4, 9, 16, 25];
let txt = "";
numbers.forEach(myFunction);

function myFunction(value) {
  txt += value + "<br>";
}
Try it Yourself »

The Array map() Method

The map() method creates a new array by performing a function on each array element.

The map() method does not execute the function for array elements without values.

The map() method does not change the original array.

This example multiplies each array value by 2:

Example

const numbers1 = [45, 4, 9, 16, 25];
const numbers2 = numbers1.map(myFunction);

function myFunction(value, index, array) {
  return value * 2;
}
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Note that the function takes 3 arguments:

  • The item value
  • The item index
  • The array itself

When a callback function uses only the value parameter, the index and array parameters can be omitted:

Example

const numbers1 = [45, 4, 9, 16, 25];
const numbers2 = numbers1.map(myFunction);

function myFunction(value) {
  return value * 2;
}
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The Array filter() Method

The filter() method creates a new array with array elements that passes a test.

This example creates a new array from elements with a value larger than 18:

Example

const numbers = [45, 4, 9, 16, 25];
const over18 = numbers.filter(myFunction);

function myFunction(value, index, array) {
  return value > 18;
}
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Note that the function takes 3 arguments:

  • The item value
  • The item index
  • The array itself

In the example above, the callback function does not use the index and array parameters, so they can be omitted:

Example

const numbers = [45, 4, 9, 16, 25];
const over18 = numbers.filter(myFunction);

function myFunction(value) {
  return value > 18;
}
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The Array reduce() Method

The reduce() method runs a function on each array element to produce (reduce it to) a single value.

The reduce() method works from left-to-right in the array. See also reduceRight().

The reduce() method does not reduce the original array.

This example finds the sum of all numbers in an array:

Example

const numbers = [45, 4, 9, 16, 25];
let sum = numbers.reduce(myFunction);

function myFunction(total, value, index, array) {
  return total + value;
}
Try it Yourself »

Note that the function takes 4 arguments:

  • The total (the initial value / previously returned value)
  • The item value
  • The item index
  • The array itself

The example above does not use the index and array parameters. It can be rewritten to:

Example

const numbers = [45, 4, 9, 16, 25];
let sum = numbers.reduce(myFunction);

function myFunction(total, value) {
  return total + value;
}
Try it Yourself »

The reduce() method can accept an initial value:

Example

const numbers = [45, 4, 9, 16, 25];
let sum = numbers.reduce(myFunction, 100);

function myFunction(total, value) {
  return total + value;
}
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The Array reduceRight() Method

The reduceRight() method runs a function on each array element to produce (reduce it to) a single value.

The reduceRight() works from right-to-left in the array. See also reduce().

The reduceRight() method does not reduce the original array.

This example finds the sum of all numbers in an array:

Example

const numbers = [45, 4, 9, 16, 25];
let sum = numbers1.reduceRight(myFunction);

function myFunction(total, value, index, array) {
  return total + value;
}
Try it Yourself »

Note that the function takes 4 arguments:

  • The total (the initial value / previously returned value)
  • The item value
  • The item index
  • The array itself

The example above does not use the index and array parameters. It can be rewritten to:

Example

const numbers = [45, 4, 9, 16, 25];
let sum = numbers1.reduceRight(myFunction);

function myFunction(total, value) {
  return total + value;
}
Try it Yourself »

The Array every() Method

The every() method check if all array values pass a test.

This example check if all array values are larger than 18:

Example

const numbers = [45, 4, 9, 16, 25];
let allOver18 = numbers.every(myFunction);

function myFunction(value, index, array) {
  return value > 18;
}
Try it Yourself »

Note that the function takes 3 arguments:

  • The item value
  • The item index
  • The array itself

When a callback function uses the first parameter only (value), the other parameters can be omitted:

Example

const numbers = [45, 4, 9, 16, 25];
let allOver18 = numbers.every(myFunction);

function myFunction(value) {
  return value > 18;
}
Try it Yourself »

The Array some() Method

The some() method check if some array values pass a test.

This example check if some array values are larger than 18:

Example

const numbers = [45, 4, 9, 16, 25];
let someOver18 = numbers.some(myFunction);

function myFunction(value, index, array) {
  return value > 18;
}
Try it Yourself »

Note that the function takes 3 arguments:

  • The item value
  • The item index
  • The array itself

The Array indexOf() Method

The indexOf() method searches an array for an element value and returns its position.

Note: The first item has position 0, the second item has position 1, and so on.

Example

Search an array for the item "Apple":

const fruits = ["Apple", "Orange", "Apple", "Mango"];
let position = fruits.indexOf("Apple") + 1;
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Syntax

array.indexOf(item, start)
item Required. The item to search for.
start Optional. Where to start the search. Negative values will start at the given position counting from the end, and search to the end.

Array.indexOf() returns -1 if the item is not found.

If the item is present more than once, it returns the position of the first occurrence.


The Array lastIndexOf() Method

Array.lastIndexOf() is the same as Array.indexOf(), but returns the position of the last occurrence of the specified element.

Example

Search an array for the item "Apple":

const fruits = ["Apple", "Orange", "Apple", "Mango"];
let position = fruits.lastIndexOf("Apple") + 1;
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Syntax

array.lastIndexOf(item, start)
item Required. The item to search for
start Optional. Where to start the search. Negative values will start at the given position counting from the end, and search to the beginning

The Array includes() Method

ECMAScript 2016 introduced Array.includes() to arrays. This allows us to check if an element is present in an array (including NaN, unlike indexOf).

Example

const fruits = ["Banana", "Orange", "Apple", "Mango"];

fruits.includes("Mango"); // is true
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Syntax

array.includes(search-item)

Array.includes() allows to check for NaN values. Unlike Array.indexOf().

Array.includes() is not supported in Internet Explorer and Edge 12/13.

The first browser versions with full support are:

Chrome 47 Edge 14 Firefox 43 Safari 9 Opera 34
Dec 2015 Aug 2016 Dec 2015 Oct 2015 Dec 2015

The Array find() Method

The find() method returns the value of the first array element that passes a test function.

This example finds (returns the value of) the first element that is larger than 18:

Example

const numbers = [4, 9, 16, 25, 29];
let first = numbers.find(myFunction);

function myFunction(value, index, array) {
  return value > 18;
}
Try it Yourself »

Note that the function takes 3 arguments:

  • The item value
  • The item index
  • The array itself

Array.find() is not supported in older browsers. The first browser versions with full support are:

Chrome 45 Edge 12 Firefox 25 Safari 8 Opera 32
Sep 2015 Aug 2015 Oct 2013 Oct 2014 Sep 2015

The Array findIndex() Method

The findIndex() method returns the index of the first array element that passes a test function.

This example finds the index of the first element that is larger than 18:

Example

const numbers = [4, 9, 16, 25, 29];
let first = numbers.findIndex(myFunction);

function myFunction(value, index, array) {
  return value > 18;
}
Try it Yourself »

Note that the function takes 3 arguments:

  • The item value
  • The item index
  • The array itself

Array.findIndex() is not supported in older browsers. The first browser versions with full support are:

Chrome 45 Edge 12 Firefox 25 Safari 8 Opera 32
Sep 2015 Aug 2015 Oct 2013 Oct 2014 Sep 2015


The Array.from() Method

The Array.from() method returns an Array object from any object with a length property or any iterable object.

Example

Create an Array from a String:

Array.from("ABCDEFG")   // Returns [A,B,C,D,E,F,G]
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The Array Keys() Method

The Array.keys() method returns an Array Iterator object with the keys of an array.

Example

Create an Array Iterator object, containing the keys of the array:

const fruits = ["Banana", "Orange", "Apple", "Mango"];
const keys = fruits.keys();

for (let x of keys) {
  text += x + "<br>";
}
Try it Yourself »

Complete Array Reference

For a complete Array reference, go to our:

Complete JavaScript Array Reference.

The reference contains descriptions and examples of all Array properties and methods.