Menu
×
   ❮     
HTML CSS JAVASCRIPT SQL PYTHON JAVA PHP HOW TO W3.CSS C C++ C# BOOTSTRAP REACT MYSQL JQUERY EXCEL XML DJANGO NUMPY PANDAS NODEJS R TYPESCRIPT ANGULAR GIT POSTGRESQL MONGODB ASP AI GO KOTLIN SASS VUE DSA GEN AI SCIPY AWS CYBERSECURITY DATA SCIENCE
     ❯   

JS Tutorial

JS HOME JS Introduction JS Where To JS Output JS Statements JS Syntax JS Comments JS Variables JS Let JS Const JS Operators JS Arithmetic JS Assignment JS Data Types JS Functions JS Objects JS Events JS Strings JS String Methods JS String Search JS String Templates JS Numbers JS BigInt JS Number Methods JS Number Properties JS Arrays JS Array Methods JS Array Search JS Array Sort JS Array Iteration JS Array Const JS Dates JS Date Formats JS Date Get Methods JS Date Set Methods JS Math JS Random JS Booleans JS Comparisons JS If Else JS Switch JS Loop For JS Loop For In JS Loop For Of JS Loop While JS Break JS Iterables JS Sets JS Maps JS Typeof JS Type Conversion JS Bitwise JS RegExp JS Precedence JS Errors JS Scope JS Hoisting JS Strict Mode JS this Keyword JS Arrow Function JS Classes JS Modules JS JSON JS Debugging JS Style Guide JS Best Practices JS Mistakes JS Performance JS Reserved Words

JS Versions

JS Versions JS 2009 (ES5) JS 2015 (ES6) JS 2016 JS 2017 JS 2018 JS 2019 JS 2020 JS 2021 JS 2022 JS 2023 JS IE / Edge JS History

JS Objects

Object Definitions Object Properties Object Methods Object Display Object Accessors Object Constructors Object Prototypes Object Iterables Object Sets Object Maps Object Reference

JS Functions

Function Definitions Function Parameters Function Invocation Function Call Function Apply Function Bind Function Closures

JS Classes

Class Intro Class Inheritance Class Static

JS Async

JS Callbacks JS Asynchronous JS Promises JS Async/Await

JS HTML DOM

DOM Intro DOM Methods DOM Document DOM Elements DOM HTML DOM Forms DOM CSS DOM Animations DOM Events DOM Event Listener DOM Navigation DOM Nodes DOM Collections DOM Node Lists

JS Browser BOM

JS Window JS Screen JS Location JS History JS Navigator JS Popup Alert JS Timing JS Cookies

JS Web APIs

Web API Intro Web Forms API Web History API Web Storage API Web Worker API Web Fetch API Web Geolocation API

JS AJAX

AJAX Intro AJAX XMLHttp AJAX Request AJAX Response AJAX XML File AJAX PHP AJAX ASP AJAX Database AJAX Applications AJAX Examples

JS JSON

JSON Intro JSON Syntax JSON vs XML JSON Data Types JSON Parse JSON Stringify JSON Objects JSON Arrays JSON Server JSON PHP JSON HTML JSON JSONP

JS vs jQuery

jQuery Selectors jQuery HTML jQuery CSS jQuery DOM

JS Graphics

JS Graphics JS Canvas JS Plotly JS Chart.js JS Google Chart JS D3.js

JS Examples

JS Examples JS HTML DOM JS HTML Input JS HTML Objects JS HTML Events JS Browser JS Editor JS Exercises JS Quiz JS Website JS Bootcamp JS Certificate

JS References

JavaScript Objects HTML DOM Objects


JavaScript Const

The const keyword was introduced in ES6 (2015)

Variables defined with const cannot be Redeclared

Variables defined with const cannot be Reassigned

Variables defined with const have Block Scope

Cannot be Reassigned

A variable defined with the const keyword cannot be reassigned:

Example

const PI = 3.141592653589793;
PI = 3.14;      // This will give an error
PI = PI + 10;   // This will also give an error
Try it Yourself »

Must be Assigned

JavaScript const variables must be assigned a value when they are declared:

Correct

const PI = 3.14159265359;

Incorrect

const PI;
PI = 3.14159265359;

When to use JavaScript const?

Always declare a variable with const when you know that the value should not be changed.

Use const when you declare:

  • A new Array
  • A new Object
  • A new Function
  • A new RegExp

Constant Objects and Arrays

The keyword const is a little misleading.

It does not define a constant value. It defines a constant reference to a value.

Because of this you can NOT:

  • Reassign a constant value
  • Reassign a constant array
  • Reassign a constant object

    But you CAN:

  • Change the elements of constant array
  • Change the properties of constant object

Constant Arrays

You can change the elements of a constant array:

Example

// You can create a constant array:
const cars = ["Saab", "Volvo", "BMW"];

// You can change an element:
cars[0] = "Toyota";

// You can add an element:
cars.push("Audi");
Try it Yourself »

But you can NOT reassign the array:

Example

const cars = ["Saab", "Volvo", "BMW"];

cars = ["Toyota", "Volvo", "Audi"];    // ERROR
Try it Yourself »

Constant Objects

You can change the properties of a constant object:

Example

// You can create a const object:
const car = {type:"Fiat", model:"500", color:"white"};

// You can change a property:
car.color = "red";

// You can add a property:
car.owner = "Johnson";
Try it Yourself »

But you can NOT reassign the object:

Example

const car = {type:"Fiat", model:"500", color:"white"};

car = {type:"Volvo", model:"EX60", color:"red"};    // ERROR
Try it Yourself »

Difference Between var, let and const

ScopeRedeclareReassignHoistedBinds this
varNoYesYesYesYes
letYesNoYesNoNo
constYesNoNoNoNo

What is Good?

let and const have block scope.

let and const can not be redeclared.

let and const must be declared before use.

let and const does not bind to this.

let and const are not hoisted.

What is Not Good?

var does not have to be declared.

var is hoisted.

var binds to this.


Browser Support

The let and const keywords are not supported in Internet Explorer 11 or earlier.

The following table defines the first browser versions with full support:

Chrome 49 Edge 12 Firefox 36 Safari 11 Opera 36
Mar, 2016 Jul, 2015 Jan, 2015 Sep, 2017 Mar, 2016


Block Scope

Declaring a variable with const is similar to let when it comes to Block Scope.

The x declared in the block, in this example, is not the same as the x declared outside the block:

Example

const x = 10;
// Here x is 10

{
const x = 2;
// Here x is 2
}

// Here x is 10
Try it Yourself »

You can learn more about block scope in the chapter JavaScript Scope.


Redeclaring

Redeclaring a JavaScript var variable is allowed anywhere in a program:

Example

var x = 2;     // Allowed
var x = 3;     // Allowed
x = 4;         // Allowed

Redeclaring an existing var or let variable to const, in the same scope, is not allowed:

Example

var x = 2;     // Allowed
const x = 2;   // Not allowed

{
let x = 2;     // Allowed
const x = 2;   // Not allowed
}

{
const x = 2;   // Allowed
const x = 2;   // Not allowed
}

Reassigning an existing const variable, in the same scope, is not allowed:

Example

const x = 2;     // Allowed
x = 2;           // Not allowed
var x = 2;       // Not allowed
let x = 2;       // Not allowed
const x = 2;     // Not allowed

{
  const x = 2;   // Allowed
  x = 2;         // Not allowed
  var x = 2;     // Not allowed
  let x = 2;     // Not allowed
  const x = 2;   // Not allowed
}

Redeclaring a variable with const, in another scope, or in another block, is allowed:

Example

const x = 2;       // Allowed

{
  const x = 3;   // Allowed
}

{
  const x = 4;   // Allowed
}

Hoisting

Variables defined with var are hoisted to the top and can be initialized at any time.

Meaning: You can use the variable before it is declared:

Example

This is OK:

carName = "Volvo";
var carName;
Try it Yourself »

If you want to learn more about hoisting, study the chapter JavaScript Hoisting.

Variables defined with const are also hoisted to the top, but not initialized.

Meaning: Using a const variable before it is declared will result in a ReferenceError:

Example

alert (carName);
const carName = "Volvo";
Try it Yourself »