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C++ Structures (struct)


C++ Structures

Structures (also called structs) are a way to group several related variables into one place. Each variable in the structure is known as a member of the structure.

Unlike an array, a structure can contain many different data types (int, string, bool, etc.).


Create a Structure

To create a structure, use the struct keyword and declare each of its members inside curly braces.

After the declaration, specify the name of the structure variable (myStructure in the example below):

struct {             // Structure declaration
  int myNum;         // Member (int variable)
  string myString;   // Member (string variable)
} myStructure;       // Structure variable

Access Structure Members

To access members of a structure, use the dot syntax (.):

Example

Assign data to members of a structure and print it:

// Create a structure variable called myStructure
struct {
  int myNum;
  string myString;
} myStructure;

// Assign values to members of myStructure
myStructure.myNum = 1;
myStructure.myString = "Hello World!";

// Print members of myStructure
cout << myStructure.myNum << "\n";
cout << myStructure.myString << "\n";
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One Structure in Multiple Variables

You can use a comma (,) to use one structure in many variables:

struct {
  int myNum;
  string myString;
} myStruct1, myStruct2, myStruct3; // Multiple structure variables separated with commas

This example shows how to use a structure in two different variables:

Example

Use one structure to represent two cars:

struct {
  string brand;
  string model;
  int year;
} myCar1, myCar2; // We can add variables by separating them with a comma here

// Put data into the first structure
myCar1.brand = "BMW";
myCar1.model = "X5";
myCar1.year = 1999;

// Put data into the second structure
myCar2.brand = "Ford";
myCar2.model = "Mustang";
myCar2.year = 1969;

// Print the structure members
cout << myCar1.brand << " " << myCar1.model << " " << myCar1.year << "\n";
cout << myCar2.brand << " " << myCar2.model << " " << myCar2.year << "\n";
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Named Structures

By giving a name to the structure, you can treat it as a data type. This means that you can create variables with this structure anywhere in the program at any time.

To create a named structure, put the name of the structure right after the struct keyword:

struct myDataType { // This structure is named "myDataType"
  int myNum;
  string myString;
};

To declare a variable that uses the structure, use the name of the structure as the data type of the variable:

myDataType myVar;

Example

Use one structure to represent two cars:

// Declare a structure named "car"
struct car {
  string brand;
  string model;
  int year;
};

int main() {
  // Create a car structure and store it in myCar1;
  car myCar1;
  myCar1.brand = "BMW";
  myCar1.model = "X5";
  myCar1.year = 1999;

  // Create another car structure and store it in myCar2;
  car myCar2;
  myCar2.brand = "Ford";
  myCar2.model = "Mustang";
  myCar2.year = 1969;
 
  // Print the structure members
  cout << myCar1.brand << " " << myCar1.model << " " << myCar1.year << "\n";
  cout << myCar2.brand << " " << myCar2.model << " " << myCar2.year << "\n";
 
  return 0;
}
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