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CSSStyleDeclaration JS Conversion


JavaScript String substring()

Example

Extract characters from a string:

let str = "Hello world!";
str.substring(1, 4)   // Returns "ell"
Try it Yourself »

More "Try it Yourself" examples below.


Definition and Usage

The substring() method extracts characters, between to indices (positions), from a string, and returns the substring.

The substring() method extracts characters between "start" and "end", not including "end".

If "start" is greater than "end", substring() will swap the two arguments, meaning (1, 4) equals (4, 1).

If "start" or "end" is less than 0, they are treated as 0.

The substring() method does not change the original string.


Browser Support

substring() is an ES1 feature (JavaScript 1997).

It is fully supported in all browsers:

Chrome IE Edge Firefox Safari Opera
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
JavaScript Version: ECMAScript 1

Syntax

string.substring(start, end)

Parameter Values

Parameter Description
start Required. The position where to start the extraction. First character is at index 0
end Optional. The position (up to, but not including) where to end the extraction. If omitted, it extracts the rest of the string


Technical Details

Return Value: A new String containing the extracted characters
JavaScript Version: ECMAScript 1

More Examples

Example

Begin the extraction at position 2, and extract the rest of the string:

str.substring(2);
Try it Yourself »

Example

If "start" is greater than "end", it will swap the two arguments:

str.substring(4, 1);
Try it Yourself »

Example

If "start" is less than 0, it will start extraction from index position 0:

str.substring(-3);
Try it Yourself »

Example

Extract only the first character:

str.substring(0, 1);
Try it Yourself »

Example

Extract only the last character:

str.substring(str.length - 1);
Try it Yourself »

Related Pages

String Tutorial

String Methods

String Search