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Other References

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JavaScript String substring() Method


Extract characters from a string:

var str = "Hello world!";
var res = str.substring(1, 4);
Try it Yourself »

More "Try it Yourself" examples below.

Definition and Usage

The substring() method extracts the characters from a string, between two specified indices, and returns the new sub string.

This method extracts the characters in a string between "start" and "end", not including "end" itself.

If "start" is greater than "end", this method will swap the two arguments, meaning str.substring(1, 4) == str.substring(4, 1).

If either "start" or "end" is less than 0, it is treated as if it were 0.

Note: The substring() method does not change the original string.

Browser Support

substring() Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


string.substring(start, end)

Parameter Values

Parameter Description
start Required. The position where to start the extraction. First character is at index 0
end Optional. The position (up to, but not including) where to end the extraction. If omitted, it extracts the rest of the string

Technical Details

Return Value: A new String containing the extracted characters
JavaScript Version: ECMAScript 1

More Examples


Begin the extraction at position 2, and extract the rest of the string:

var str = "Hello world!";
var res = str.substring(2);
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If "start" is greater than "end", it will swap the two arguments:

var str = "Hello world!";
var res = str.substring(4, 1);
Try it Yourself »


If "start" is less than 0, it will start extraction from index position 0:

var str = "Hello world!";
var res = str.substring(-3);
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Extract only the first character:

var str = "Hello world!";
var res = str.substring(0, 1);
Try it Yourself »


Extract only the last character:

var str = "Hello world!";
var res = str.substring(str.length - 1, str.length);
Try it Yourself »