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The History of AI

History of AI and ML

1950Alan Turing publishes "Computing Machinery and Intelligence"
1952Arthur Samuel develops a self-learning program to play checkers
1956Artificial Intelligence used by John McCarthy in a conference
1957First programming language for numeric and scientific computing (FORTRAN)
1958First AI programming language (LISP)
1959Arthur Samuel used the term Machine Learning
1959John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky founded the MIT Artificial Intelligence Project
1961First industrial Robot (Unimate) on the assembly line at General Motors
1965ELIZA by Joseph Weizenbaum was the first program that could communicate on any topic
1972First logic programming language (PROLOG)
1991U.S. forces uses DART (automated logistics planning and scheduling) in the Gulf war
1997Deep Blue (IBM) beats the world champion in chess
2002The first robot cleaner (Roomba)
2005Self-driving car (STANLEY) wins DARPA
2008Breakthrough in speech recognition (Google)
2011A neural network wins over humans in traffic sign recognition (99.46% vs 99.22%)
2011Apple Siri
2011Watson (IBM) wins Jeopardy!
2014Amazon Alexa
2014Microsoft Cortana
2014Self-driving car (Google) passes a state driving test
2015Google AlphaGo defeated various human champions in the board game Go
2016The human robot Sofia by Hanson Robotics

Why AI Now?

One of the greatest innovators in the field of machine learning was John McCarthy, widely recognized as the "Father of Artificial Intelligence".

In the mid 1950s, McCarthy coined the term "Artificial Intelligence" and defined it as "the science of making intelligent machines".

The algorithms has been here since then. Why is AI more interesting now?

The answer is:

  • Computing power has not been strong enough
  • Computer storage has not been large enough
  • Big data has not been available
  • Fast Internet has not been available

Another strong force is the major investments from big companies (Google, Microsoft, Facebook, YouTube) because their datasets became much too big to handle traditionally.

Man vs Machine


Interesting Questions

Studying AI raises many interesting questions:

"Can computers think like humans?"

"Can computers be smarter than humans?"

"Can computers take over the world?"

Machines can understand verbal commands, recognize faces, drive cars, and play games better than us.

How long will it take before they walk among us?

Artificial Intelligence Films

Metropolis Metropolis
German Science-Fiction Drama (1927).

In the future, wealthy industrialists and business magnates and their top employees reign over the city of Metropolis from colossal skyscrapers, while underground-dwelling workers toil to operate the great machines that power it.

Rated as one of the greatest and most influential films ever made. Inscribed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register in 2001, as the first film thus distinguished.
The Day the Earth Stood Still
American Science-Fiction (1951).

Rated by the US National Film Registry in 1995 as Culturally, Historically, or Aesthetically Significant.
2001 Space Odyssey 2001:a Space Odyssey
Epic Science-Fiction (1968).

Selected for preservation in the National Film Registry by the US Library of Congress in 1991 as Culturally, Historically, or Aesthetically Significant.
American Science-Fiction Western (1973).

An adult amusement park has 3 worlds populated with androids that are indistinguishable from human beings: Western World (American Old West), Medieval World (Medieval Europe), and Roman World (City of Pompeii).

Westworld is a story about how artificial intelligence can be used to entertain us and allow us to live out our fantasies.
Star Wars Star Wars
Epic Space Opera Film (1977).

Winning 7 Oscars at the 50th Academy Awards (including Best Picture).
The Empire Strikes Back (1980) and Return of the Jedi (1983) rounded the Star Wars trilogy.

Selected for preservation in the National Film Registry by the US Library of Congress in 1989, for being Culturally, Historically, or Aesthetically Significant.
1977Demon Seed
1982Blade Runner
1984The Terminator
Science-Fiction film.
DARYL ("Data-Analyzing Robot Youth Lifeform") is an artificial intelligence experiment created by the government.
1986Short Circuit
1994Star Trek
1999Bicentennial Man
Matrix The Matrix
Science-Fiction Action (1999).

Selected for preservation in the US National Film Registry by the Library of Congress in 2012, for being Culturally, Historically, or Aesthetically Significant.
2001A.I. (Spielberg)
2004I, Robot
Her Her
Science-Fiction Romantic Drama (2013).

Theodore develops a relationship with Samantha, an artificially intelligent virtual assistant personified through a female voice.
Gives us a glimpse of how artificial assistants can be in the future and how we can even fall in love with them.
2013The Machine
Imitation Game The Imitation Game
Historical Drama (2014).

Based on the biography Alan Turing: The Enigma by Andrew Hodges.
The film's title quotes the game Alan Turing proposed for answering the question "Can machines think?", in his 1950 seminal paper "Computing Machinery and Intelligence".
2015Ex Machina
HBO Series.
The theme park "Westworld" is populated by "hosts" (biomechanical robots indistinguishable from humans) that are programmed to fulfill the guests' every desire.
Westworld is a story about how Artificial Intelligence can be used to entertain us and allow us to live out our fantasies.
2016Infinity Chamber
Science-Fiction film.

A man who sabotaged a government operation with a computer virus, is held in an automated detention facility that is overseen by an AI computer named Howard.
2019I am Mother
Documentary about AI, social control and power. How this technology is changing our lives, our society and our future.
2020Coded Bias
Detailed documentary about AI and the bias that is embedded into this technology.