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Artificial Intelligence

Cognitive Intelligence

About 70 000 years ago, the human brain developed "Cognitive Intelligence":

  • Being able to understand a language
  • Being able to understand numbers
  • Being able to understand abstract thinking

Words and Numbers

Using words, was a big step in the development of human intelligence:

"Elephant" is more informative than "Big Animal".

Understanding numbers, was also a big step:

"5" or "50" is more informative than "few" or "many".


Languages

"There is a lion behind the big oak" is more informative than shouting "Danger!".

Having a language is probably a key characteristic that distinguishes us from animals.


Abstract Thinking

Abstract thinking is thinking about things that are not concrete, like freedom, or ideas, or concepts.

Abstract

Statue Liberty

A figure of freedom

Abstract

Freedom
The Past
The Future
Imagination
Explanation

Concrete

Statue Liberty

A figure of cement

Concrete

My Mouth
My Fingertip
One Apple
Two Chicken
Three Horses

Many everyday behaviors use abstract thinking:

  • Using Concepts
  • Using Theories
  • Using Metaphors
  • Using Analogies
  • Using Imagination

Computer Languages

Computers are programmed with a limited set of Words put together in computer Statements:

Example

var points = [40, 100, 1, 5, 25, 10];
points.sort(function(a, b){return a - b});
Try it Yourself »

Computers can handle an unlimited amount of Numbers.


Human Languages

Human languages contain a limited set of Wordsput together in Sentences:

Example

I'm going on holiday in my new car
Vado in vacanza con la mia macchina nuova
Me voy de vacaciones en mi auto nuevo
Ich fahre mit meinem neuen Auto in den Urlaub

Humans can not handle an unlimited amount of Numbers.


What is Mind?

There is no proven definition of Mind.

Mind can be defined as an instantiation of intelligence.

Mind can be defined as a collection of knowledge.

Is thinking just know-how?

Is feeling just know-how?

Is meaning just know-how?

Is the Mind just a big computer?


What is Intelligence?

There is no proven definition of Intelligence.

Intelligence can be defined as:

  • Being able to understand abstract thinking
  • Being able to understand a language
  • Being able to understand numbers

Intelligence can be defined as a collection of knowledge:

"Intelligence could be defined as the process of obtaining knowledge by efficent means."

Yampolsky (2013)

The challenge of AI is to understand what intelligence is, and how intelligence works.

What is the difference between human knowledge and artificial intelligence?

Intelligence might be a type of algorithms in our brains or in our genes.

Later in this tutorial you will learn more about intelligent algorithms.