AI is a number of different sciences for building software or machines that can do task that normally require human intelligence:
- Narrow AI
- Machine Learning (ML)
- Deep Learning
Narrow AI is the AI we have around us today.
- Search Engines
- Self-driving Cars
- Image Recognition
One need not decide if a machine can "think".
One need only decide if a machine can act as intelligently as a human.
Machine Learning (ML)
ML is about creating computer algorithms than can improve themselves.
ML is about training algorithms to make predictions, like predicting what kind of video you like, based on the videos you have played.
Supervised machine learning is used to predict defined relationships like "What is spam in an e-mail".
Unsupervised machine learning is used to predict undefined relationships like meaningful patterns in data.
It is expected that Machine Learning (ML) will shift to AutoML to allow programmers to solve problems without creating models.
Deep Learning (DL)
Deep Learning is a type of computer algorithms that use many layers of data called Neurons to extract higher-level data.
Each successive layer uses the preceeding layer as input.
For instance, optical reading uses low layers to identify edges, and higher layers to identify letters.
DNN Deep Neural Network.
CNN Convolutional Neural Network.
RNN Recurrent Neural Network.
Deep Learning has two phases:
1. Training: Input data are used to calculate the parameters of the model.
2. Inference: The "trained" model outputs data from any given input.
History of AI
|1950||Alan Turing publishes "Computing Machinery and Intelligence"|
|1956||AI first mentioned by John McCarthy in an academic conference|
|1957||First programming language for numeric and scientific computing (FORTRAN)|
|1958||First AI programming language (Lisp)|
|1959||Arthur Samuel used the term "Machine Learning"|
|1961||First industrial robot (Unimate) on the assembly line at General Motors.|
|1965||ELIZA by Joseph Weizenbaum was the first interactive program that could communicate on any topic|
|1972||First logic programming language (PROLOG)|
|1997||Deep Blue (IBM) beats the world champion in chess|
|2002||The first robot cleaner (Roomba)|
|2005||Self-driving car (STANLEY) wins DARPA|
|2008||Breakthrough in speech recognition (Google)|
|2011||A neural network wins over humans in traffic sign recognition (99.46% vs 99.22%)|
|2011||Watson (IBM) wins Jeopardy!|
|2014||Self-driving car (Google) passes a state driving test|
|2015||Google AlphaGo defeated various human champions in the board game Go|
|2016||The human robot Sofia by Hanson Robotics|