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Django QuerySet Filter


Django QuerySet Filter

The filter() method is used to filter you search, and allows you to return only the rows that matches the search term.

As we learned in the previous chapter, we can filter on field names like this:

Example

Return only the records where the firstname is 'Emil':

mydata = Members.objects.filter(firstname='Emil').values()
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In SQL, the above statement would be written like this:

SELECT * FROM members WHERE firstname = 'Emil';

AND

The filter() method takes the arguments as **kwargs (keyword arguments), so you can filter on more than one field by sepearting them by a comma.

Example

Return records where lastname is "Refsnes" and id is 2:

mydata = Members.objects.filter(lastname='Refsnes', id=2).values()
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In SQL, the above statement would be written like this:

SELECT * FROM members WHERE   lastname = 'Refsnes' AND id = 2;

OR

To return records where firstname is Emil or firstname is Tobias (meaning: returning records that matches either query, not necessarily both) is not as easy as the AND example above.

We can use multiple filter() methods, separated by a pipe | character. The results will merge into one model.

Example

Return records where firstname is either "Emil" or Tobias":

mydata = Members.objects.filter(firstname='Emil').values() | Members.objects.filter(firstname='Tobias').values()
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Another common method is to import and use Q expressions:

Example

Return records where firstname is either "Emil" or Tobias":

from django.http import HttpResponse
from django.template import loader
from .models import Members
from django.db.models import Q

def testing(request):
  mydata = Members.objects.filter(Q(firstname='Emil') | Q(firstname='Tobias')).values()
  template = loader.get_template('template.html')
  context = {
    'mymembers': mydata,
  }
  return HttpResponse(template.render(context, request))
Run Example »

In SQL, the above statement would be written like this:

SELECT * FROM members WHERE   firstname = 'Emil' OR firstname = 'Tobias';

Field Lookups

Django has its own way of specifying SQL statements and WHERE clauses.

To make specific where clasuses in Django, use "Field lookups".

Field lookups are keywords that represents specific SQL keywords.

Example:

.filter(firstname__startswith='L');

Is the same as the SQL statment:

WHERE firstname LIKE '%L'

The above statement will return records where firstname starts with 'L'.

Field Lookups Syntax

All Field lookup keywords must be specified with the fieldname, followed by two(!) underscore characters, and the keyword.

In our Members model, the statement would be written like this:

Example

Return the records where firstname starts with the letter 'L':

mydata = Members.objects.filter(firstname__startswith='L').values()
Run Example »

Field Lookups Reference

A list of all field look up keywords:

Keyword Description
contains Contains the phrase
icontains Same as contains, but case-insensitive
date Matches a date
day Matches a date (day of month, 1-31) (for dates)
endswith Ends with
iendswith Same as endswidth, but case-insensitive
exact An exact match
iexact Same as exact, but case-insensitive
in Matches one of the values
isnull Matches NULL values
gt Greater than
gte Greater than, or equal to
hour Matches an hour (for datetimes)
lt Less than
lte Less than, or equal to
minute Matches a minute (for datetimes)
month Matches a month (for dates)
quarter Matches a quarter of the year (1-4) (for dates)
range Match between
regex Matches a regular expression
iregex Same as regex, but case-insensitive
second Matches a second (for datetimes)
startswith Starts with
istartswith Same as startswith, but case-insensitive
time Matches a time (for datetimes)
week Matches a week number (1-53) (for dates)
week_day Matches a day of week (1-7) 1 is sunday
iso_week_day Matches a ISO 8601 day of week (1-7) 1 is monday
year Matches a year (for dates)
iso_year Matches an ISO 8601 year (for dates)