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JS Async

JS Callbacks JS Asynchronous JS Promises JS Async/Await

JS HTML DOM

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JS JSON

JSON Intro JSON Syntax JSON vs XML JSON Data Types JSON Parse JSON Stringify JSON Objects JSON Arrays JSON Server JSON PHP JSON HTML JSON JSONP

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JS References

JavaScript Objects HTML DOM Objects


JavaScript Where To


The <script> Tag

In HTML, JavaScript code is inserted between <script> and </script> tags.

Example

<script>
document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML = "My First JavaScript";
</script>

Try it Yourself »

Old JavaScript examples may use a type attribute: <script type="text/javascript">.
The type attribute is not required. JavaScript is the default scripting language in HTML.


JavaScript Functions and Events

A JavaScript function is a block of JavaScript code, that can be executed when "called" for.

For example, a function can be called when an event occurs, like when the user clicks a button.

You will learn much more about functions and events in later chapters.


JavaScript in <head> or <body>

You can place any number of scripts in an HTML document.

Scripts can be placed in the <body>, or in the <head> section of an HTML page, or in both.


JavaScript in <head>

In this example, a JavaScript function is placed in the <head> section of an HTML page.

The function is invoked (called) when a button is clicked:

Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<script>
function myFunction() {
  document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML = "Paragraph changed.";
}
</script>
</head>
<body>

<h2>Demo JavaScript in Head</h2>

<p id="demo">A Paragraph</p>
<button type="button" onclick="myFunction()">Try it</button>

</body>
</html>

Try it Yourself »


JavaScript in <body>

In this example, a JavaScript function is placed in the <body> section of an HTML page.

The function is invoked (called) when a button is clicked:

Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<h2>Demo JavaScript in Body</h2>

<p id="demo">A Paragraph</p>

<button type="button" onclick="myFunction()">Try it</button>

<script>
function myFunction() {
  document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML = "Paragraph changed.";
}
</script>

</body>
</html>
Try it Yourself »

Placing scripts at the bottom of the <body> element improves the display speed, because script interpretation slows down the display.


External JavaScript

Scripts can also be placed in external files:

External file: myScript.js

function myFunction() {
  document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML = "Paragraph changed.";
}

External scripts are practical when the same code is used in many different web pages.

JavaScript files have the file extension .js.

To use an external script, put the name of the script file in the src (source) attribute of a <script> tag:

Example

<script src="myScript.js"></script>
Try it Yourself »

You can place an external script reference in <head> or <body> as you like.

The script will behave as if it was located exactly where the <script> tag is located.

External scripts cannot contain <script> tags.


External JavaScript Advantages

Placing scripts in external files has some advantages:

  • It separates HTML and code
  • It makes HTML and JavaScript easier to read and maintain
  • Cached JavaScript files can speed up page loads

To add several script files to one page  - use several script tags:

Example

<script src="myScript1.js"></script>
<script src="myScript2.js"></script>

External References

An external script can be referenced in 3 different ways:

  • With a full URL (a full web address)
  • With a file path (like /js/)
  • Without any path

This example uses a full URL to link to myScript.js:

Example

<script src="https://www.w3schools.com/js/myScript.js"></script>

Try it Yourself »

This example uses a file path to link to myScript.js:

Example

<script src="/js/myScript.js"></script>

Try it Yourself »

This example uses no path to link to myScript.js:

Example

<script src="myScript.js"></script>

Try it Yourself »

You can read more about file paths in the chapter HTML File Paths.