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JavaScript Bitwise Operations


JavaScript Bitwise Operators

Operator Name Description
& AND Sets each bit to 1 if both bits are 1
| OR Sets each bit to 1 if one of two bits is 1
^ XOR Sets each bit to 1 if only one of two bits is 1
~ NOT Inverts all the bits
<< Zero fill left shift Shifts left by pushing zeros in from the right and let the leftmost bits fall off
>> Signed right shift Shifts right by pushing copies of the leftmost bit in from the left, and let the rightmost bits fall off
>>> Zero fill right shift Shifts right by pushing zeros in from the left, and let the rightmost bits fall off

Examples

Operation Result Same as Result
5 & 1 1 0101 & 0001  0001
5 | 1 5 0101 | 0001  0101
~ 5 10  ~0101  1010
5 << 1 10 0101 << 1  1010
5 ^ 1 4 0101 ^ 0001  0100
5 >> 1 2 0101 >> 1  0010
5 >>> 1 2 0101 >>> 1  0010

JavaScript Uses 32 bits Bitwise Operands

JavaScript stores numbers as 64 bits floating point numbers, but all bitwise operations are performed on 32 bits binary numbers.

Before a bitwise operation is performed, JavaScript converts numbers to 32 bits signed integers.

After the bitwise operation is performed, the result is converted back to 64 bits JavaScript numbers.

The examples above uses 4 bits unsigned binary numbers. Because of this ~ 5 returns 10.

Since JavaScript uses 32 bits signed integers, JavaScript will return -6.

00000000000000000000000000000101 (5)

11111111111111111111111111111010 (~5 = -6)

A signed integer uses the leftmost bit as the minus sign.



Bitwise AND

When a bitwise AND is performed on a pair of bits, it returns 1 if both bits are 1.

One bit example:
OperationResult
0 & 00
0 & 10
1 & 00
1 & 11
4 bits example:
OperationResult
1111 & 00000000
1111 & 00010001
1111 & 00100010
1111 & 01000100

Bitwise OR

When a bitwise OR is performed on a pair of bits, it returns 1 if one of the bits are 1:

One bit example:
OperationResult
0 | 00
0 | 1
1 | 01
1 | 11
4 bits example:
OperationResult
1111 | 00001111
1111 | 00011111
1111 | 00101111
1111 | 01001111

Bitwise XOR

When a bitwise XOR is performed on a pair of bits, it returns 1 if the bits are different:

One bit example:
OperationResult
0 ^ 00
0 ^ 1
1 ^ 01
1 ^ 1
4 bits example:
OperationResult
1111 ^ 00001111
1111 ^ 00011110
1111 ^ 00101101
1111 ^ 01001011

JavaScript Bitwise AND (&)

Bitwise AND returns 1 only if both bits are 1:

DecimalBinary
500000000000000000000000000000101
100000000000000000000000000000001
5 & 100000000000000000000000000000001 (1)

Example

var x = 5 & 1;
Try it Yourself »

JavaScript Bitwise OR (|)

Bitwise or returns 1 if one of the bits are 1:

DecimalBinary
500000000000000000000000000000101
100000000000000000000000000000001
5 | 100000000000000000000000000000101 (5)

Example

var x = 5 | 1;
Try it Yourself »

JavaScript Bitwise XOR (^)

Bitwise XOR returns 1 if the bits are different:

DecimalBinary
500000000000000000000000000000101
100000000000000000000000000000001
5 ^ 100000000000000000000000000000100 (4)

Example

var x = 5 ^ 1;
Try it Yourself »

JavaScript Bitwise NOT (~)

DecimalBinary
500000000000000000000000000000101
~511111111111111111111111111111010 (-6)

Example

var x = ~5;
Try it Yourself »

JavaScript (Zero Fill) Bitwise Left Shift (<<)

This is a zero fill left shift. One or more zero bits are pushed in from the right, and the leftmost bits fall off:

DecimalBinary
500000000000000000000000000000101
5 << 100000000000000000000000000001010 (10)

Example

var x = 5 << 1;
Try it Yourself »

JavaScript (Sign Preserving) Bitwise Right Shift (>>)

This is a sign preserving right shift. Copies of the leftmost bit are pushed in from the left, and the rightmost bits fall off:

DecimalBinary
-511111111111111111111111111111011
-5 >> 111111111111111111111111111111101 (-3)

Example

var x = -5 >> 1;
Try it Yourself »

JavaScript (Zero Fill) Right Shift (>>>)

This is a zero fill right shift. One or more zero bits are pushed in from the left, and the rightmost bits fall off:

DecimalBinary
500000000000000000000000000000101
5 >>> 100000000000000000000000000000010 (2)

Example

var x = 5 >>> 1;
Try it Yourself »

Binary Numbers

Binary numbers with only one bit set is easy to understand:

Binary RepresentationDecimal value
000000000000000000000000000000011
000000000000000000000000000000102
000000000000000000000000000001004
000000000000000000000000000010008
0000000000000000000000000001000016
0000000000000000000000000010000032
0000000000000000000000000100000064

Setting a few more bits reveals the binary pattern:

Binary RepresentationDecimal value
000000000000000000000000000001015 (4 + 1)
0000000000000000000000000000110113 (8 + 4 + 1)
0000000000000000000000000010110145 (32 + 8 + 4 + 1)

JavaScript binary numbers are stored in two's complement format.

This means that a negative number is the bitwise NOT of the number plus 1:

Binary RepresentationDecimal value
000000000000000000000000000001015
11111111111111111111111111111011-5
000000000000000000000000000001106
11111111111111111111111111111010-6
0000000000000000000000000010100040
11111111111111111111111111011000-40

Converting Decimal to Binary

Example

function dec2bin(dec){
    return (dec >>> 0).toString(2);
}
Try it Yourself »

Converting Binary to Decimal

Example

function bin2dec(bin){
    return parseInt(bin, 2).toString(10);
}
Try it Yourself »