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JavaScript Math Object

The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform mathematical tasks on numbers.

Example

Math.PI;            // returns 3.141592653589793
Try it Yourself »

The Math Object

Unlike other objects, the Math object has no constructor.

The Math object is static.

All methods and properties can be used without creating a Math object first.


Math Properties (Constants)

The syntax for any Math property is : Math.property.

JavaScript provides 8 mathematical constants that can be accessed as Math properties:

Example

Math.E        // returns Euler's number
Math.PI       // returns PI
Math.SQRT2    // returns the square root of 2
Math.SQRT1_2  // returns the square root of 1/2
Math.LN2      // returns the natural logarithm of 2
Math.LN10     // returns the natural logarithm of 10
Math.LOG2E    // returns base 2 logarithm of E
Math.LOG10E   // returns base 10 logarithm of E
Try it Yourself »

Math Methods

The syntax for Math any methods is : Math.method.(number)


Number to Integer

There are 4 common methods to round a number to an integer:

Math.round(x)Returns x rounded to its nearest integer
Math.ceil(x)Returns x rounded up to its nearest integer
Math.floor(x)Returns x rounded down to its nearest integer
Math.trunc(x)Returns the integer part of x (new in ES6)

Math.round()

Math.round(x) returns the nearest integer:

Example

Math.round(4.9);    // returns 5
Math.round(4.7);    // returns 5
Math.round(4.4);    // returns 4
Math.round(4.2);    // returns 4
Math.round(-4.2);    // returns -4
Try it Yourself »

Math.ceil()

Math.ceil(x) returns the value of x rounded up to its nearest integer:

Example

Math.ceil(4.9);     // returns 5
Math.ceil(4.7);     // returns 5
Math.ceil(4.4);     // returns 5
Math.ceil(4.2);     // returns 5
Math.ceil(-4.2);     // returns -4
Try it Yourself »

Math.floor()

Math.floor(x) returns the value of x rounded down to its nearest integer:

Example

Math.floor(4.9);    // returns 4
Math.floor(4.7);    // returns 4
Math.floor(4.4);    // returns 4
Math.floor(4.2);    // returns 4
Math.floor(-4.2);    // returns -5
Try it Yourself »

Math.trunc()

Math.trunc(x) returns the integer part of x:

Example

Math.trunc(4.9);    // returns 4
Math.trunc(4.7);    // returns 4
Math.trunc(4.4);    // returns 4
Math.trunc(4.2);    // returns 4
Math.trunc(-4.2);    // returns -4
Try it Yourself »

Math.sign()

Math.sign(x) returns if x is negative, null or positive:

Example

Math.sign(-4);    // returns -1
Math.sign(0);    // returns 0
Math.sign(4);    // returns 1
Try it Yourself »

Math.trunc() and Math.sign() were added to JavaScript 2015 - ES6.



Math.pow()

Math.pow(x, y) returns the value of x to the power of y:

Example

Math.pow(8, 2);      // returns 64
Try it Yourself »

Math.sqrt()

Math.sqrt(x) returns the square root of x:

Example

Math.sqrt(64);      // returns 8
Try it Yourself »

Math.abs()

Math.abs(x) returns the absolute (positive) value of x:

Example

Math.abs(-4.7);     // returns 4.7
Try it Yourself »

Math.sin()

Math.sin(x) returns the sine (a value between -1 and 1) of the angle x (given in radians).

If you want to use degrees instead of radians, you have to convert degrees to radians:

Angle in radians = Angle in degrees x PI / 180.

Example

Math.sin(90 * Math.PI / 180);     // returns 1 (the sine of 90 degrees)
Try it Yourself »

Math.cos()

Math.cos(x) returns the cosine (a value between -1 and 1) of the angle x (given in radians).

If you want to use degrees instead of radians, you have to convert degrees to radians:

Angle in radians = Angle in degrees x PI / 180.

Example

Math.cos(0 * Math.PI / 180);     // returns 1 (the cos of 0 degrees)
Try it Yourself »

Math.min() and Math.max()

Math.min() and Math.max() can be used to find the lowest or highest value in a list of arguments:

Example

Math.min(0, 150, 30, 20, -8, -200);  // returns -200
Try it Yourself »

Example

Math.max(0, 150, 30, 20, -8, -200);  // returns 150
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Math.random()

Math.random() returns a random number between 0 (inclusive), and 1 (exclusive):

Example

Math.random();     // returns a random number
Try it Yourself »

You will learn more about Math.random() in the next chapter of this tutorial.


The Math.log() Method

Math.log(x) returns the natural logarithm of x:

Example

Math.log(1);    // returns 0
Try it Yourself »

The natural logarithm returns the time needed to reach a certain level of growth.

Math.E and Math.log() are twins.

How many times must we multiply Math.E to get 10?

Example

Math.log(10);    // returns 2.302585092994046
Try it Yourself »

The Math.log2() Method

Math.log2(x) returns the base 2 logarithm of x.

How many times must we multiply 2 to get 8?

Example

Math.log2(8);    // returns 3
Try it Yourself »

The Math.log10() Method

Math.log10(x) returns the base 10 logarithm of x.

How many times must we multiply 10 to get 1000?

Example

Math.log10(1000);    // returns 3
Try it Yourself »

Math Object Methods

Method Description
abs(x) Returns the absolute value of x
acos(x) Returns the arccosine of x, in radians
acosh(x) Returns the hyperbolic arccosine of x
asin(x) Returns the arcsine of x, in radians
asinh(x) Returns the hyperbolic arcsine of x
atan(x) Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians
atan2(y, x) Returns the arctangent of the quotient of its arguments
atanh(x) Returns the hyperbolic arctangent of x
cbrt(x) Returns the cubic root of x
ceil(x) Returns x, rounded upwards to the nearest integer
cos(x) Returns the cosine of x (x is in radians)
cosh(x) Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x
exp(x) Returns the value of Ex
floor(x) Returns x, rounded downwards to the nearest integer
log(x) Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of x
max(x, y, z, ..., n) Returns the number with the highest value
min(x, y, z, ..., n) Returns the number with the lowest value
pow(x, y) Returns the value of x to the power of y
random() Returns a random number between 0 and 1
round(x) Rounds x to the nearest integer
sign(x) Returns if x is negative, null or positive (-1, 0, 1)
sin(x) Returns the sine of x (x is in radians)
sinh(x) Returns the hyperbolic sine of x
sqrt(x) Returns the square root of x
tan(x) Returns the tangent of an angle
tanh(x) Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number
trunc(x) Returns the integer part of a number (x)

Complete Math Reference

For a complete reference, go to our complete Math object reference.

The reference contains descriptions and examples of all Math properties and methods.


Test Yourself With Exercises

Exercise:

Use the correct Math method to create a random number.

let r = ;

Start the Exercise