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JavaScript Math Object

The JavaScript Math object allows you to perform mathematical tasks on numbers.


Math.PI;            // returns 3.141592653589793
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The Math Object

Unlike other objects, the Math object has no constructor.

The Math object is static.

All methods and properties can be used without creating a Math object first.

Math Properties (Constants)

The syntax for any Math property is : Math.property.

JavaScript provides 8 mathematical constants that can be accessed as Math properties:


Math.E        // returns Euler's number
Math.PI       // returns PI
Math.SQRT2    // returns the square root of 2
Math.SQRT1_2  // returns the square root of 1/2
Math.LN2      // returns the natural logarithm of 2
Math.LN10     // returns the natural logarithm of 10
Math.LOG2E    // returns base 2 logarithm of E
Math.LOG10E   // returns base 10 logarithm of E
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Math Methods

The syntax for Math any methods is : Math.method.(number)

Number to Integer

There are 4 common methods to round a number to an integer:

Math.round(x)Returns x rounded to its nearest integer
Math.ceil(x)Returns x rounded up to its nearest integer
Math.floor(x)Returns x rounded down to its nearest integer
Math.trunc(x)Returns the integer part of x (new in ES6)


Math.round(x) returns the nearest integer:


Math.round(4.9);    // returns 5
Math.round(4.7);    // returns 5
Math.round(4.4);    // returns 4
Math.round(4.2);    // returns 4
Math.round(-4.2);    // returns -4
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Math.ceil(x) returns the value of x rounded up to its nearest integer:


Math.ceil(4.9);     // returns 5
Math.ceil(4.7);     // returns 5
Math.ceil(4.4);     // returns 5
Math.ceil(4.2);     // returns 5
Math.ceil(-4.2);     // returns -4
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Math.floor(x) returns the value of x rounded down to its nearest integer:


Math.floor(4.9);    // returns 4
Math.floor(4.7);    // returns 4
Math.floor(4.4);    // returns 4
Math.floor(4.2);    // returns 4
Math.floor(-4.2);    // returns -5
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Math.trunc(x) returns the integer part of x:


Math.trunc(4.9);    // returns 4
Math.trunc(4.7);    // returns 4
Math.trunc(4.4);    // returns 4
Math.trunc(4.2);    // returns 4
Math.trunc(-4.2);    // returns -4
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Math.sign(x) returns if x is negative, null or positive:


Math.sign(-4);    // returns -1
Math.sign(0);    // returns 0
Math.sign(4);    // returns 1
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Math.trunc() and Math.sign() were added to JavaScript 2015 - ES6.


Math.pow(x, y) returns the value of x to the power of y:


Math.pow(8, 2);      // returns 64
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Math.sqrt(x) returns the square root of x:


Math.sqrt(64);      // returns 8
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Math.abs(x) returns the absolute (positive) value of x:


Math.abs(-4.7);     // returns 4.7
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Math.sin(x) returns the sine (a value between -1 and 1) of the angle x (given in radians).

If you want to use degrees instead of radians, you have to convert degrees to radians:

Angle in radians = Angle in degrees x PI / 180.


Math.sin(90 * Math.PI / 180);     // returns 1 (the sine of 90 degrees)
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Math.cos(x) returns the cosine (a value between -1 and 1) of the angle x (given in radians).

If you want to use degrees instead of radians, you have to convert degrees to radians:

Angle in radians = Angle in degrees x PI / 180.


Math.cos(0 * Math.PI / 180);     // returns 1 (the cos of 0 degrees)
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Math.min() and Math.max()

Math.min() and Math.max() can be used to find the lowest or highest value in a list of arguments:


Math.min(0, 150, 30, 20, -8, -200);  // returns -200
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Math.max(0, 150, 30, 20, -8, -200);  // returns 150
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Math.random() returns a random number between 0 (inclusive), and 1 (exclusive):


Math.random();     // returns a random number
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You will learn more about Math.random() in the next chapter of this tutorial.

The Math.log() Method

Math.log(x) returns the natural logarithm of x:


Math.log(1);    // returns 0
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The natural logarithm returns the time needed to reach a certain level of growth.

Math.E and Math.log() are twins.

How many times must we multiply Math.E to get 10?


Math.log(10);    // returns 2.302585092994046
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The Math.log2() Method

Math.log2(x) returns the base 2 logarithm of x.

How many times must we multiply 2 to get 8?


Math.log2(8);    // returns 3
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The Math.log10() Method

Math.log10(x) returns the base 10 logarithm of x.

How many times must we multiply 10 to get 1000?


Math.log10(1000);    // returns 3
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Math Object Methods

Method Description
abs(x) Returns the absolute value of x
acos(x) Returns the arccosine of x, in radians
acosh(x) Returns the hyperbolic arccosine of x
asin(x) Returns the arcsine of x, in radians
asinh(x) Returns the hyperbolic arcsine of x
atan(x) Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians
atan2(y, x) Returns the arctangent of the quotient of its arguments
atanh(x) Returns the hyperbolic arctangent of x
cbrt(x) Returns the cubic root of x
ceil(x) Returns x, rounded upwards to the nearest integer
cos(x) Returns the cosine of x (x is in radians)
cosh(x) Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x
exp(x) Returns the value of Ex
floor(x) Returns x, rounded downwards to the nearest integer
log(x) Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of x
max(x, y, z, ..., n) Returns the number with the highest value
min(x, y, z, ..., n) Returns the number with the lowest value
pow(x, y) Returns the value of x to the power of y
random() Returns a random number between 0 and 1
round(x) Rounds x to the nearest integer
sign(x) Returns if x is negative, null or positive (-1, 0, 1)
sin(x) Returns the sine of x (x is in radians)
sinh(x) Returns the hyperbolic sine of x
sqrt(x) Returns the square root of x
tan(x) Returns the tangent of an angle
tanh(x) Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number
trunc(x) Returns the integer part of a number (x)

Complete Math Reference

For a complete reference, go to our complete Math object reference.

The reference contains descriptions and examples of all Math properties and methods.

Test Yourself With Exercises


Use the correct Math method to create a random number.

let r = ;

Start the Exercise