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JavaScript Const


ECMAScript 2015

ES2015 intoduced two important new JavaScript keywords: let and const.

Variables defined with const behave like let variables, except they cannot be reassigned:

Example

const PI = 3.141592653589793;
PI = 3.14;      // This will give an error
PI = PI + 10;   // This will also give an error
Try it Yourself »

Block Scope

Declaring a variable with const is similar to let when it comes to Block Scope.

The x declared in the block, in this example, is not the same as the x declared outside the block:

Example

var x = 10;
// Here x is 10
{
    const x = 2;
    // Here x is 2
}
// Here x is 10
Try it Yourself »

You can learn more about Block Scope in the previous chapter: JavaScript Let.


Assigned when Declared

JavaScript const variables must be assigned a value when they are declared:

Incorrect

const PI;
PI = 3.14159265359;

Correct

const PI = 3.14159265359;

Not Real Constants

The keyword const is a little misleading.

It does NOT define a constant value. It defines a constant reference to a value.

Because of this, we cannot change constant primitive values, but we can change the properties of constant objects.


Primitive Values

If we assign a primitive value to a constant, we cannot change the primitive value: 

Example

const PI = 3.141592653589793;
PI = 3.14;      // This will give an error
PI = PI + 10;   // This will also give an error
Try it Yourself »

Constant Objects can Change

You can change the properties of a constant object:

Example

// You can create a const object:
const car = {type:"Fiat", model:"500", color:"white"};

// You can change a property:
car.color = "red";

// You can add a property:
car.owner = "Johnson";
Try it Yourself »

But you can NOT reassign a constant object:

Example

const car = {type:"Fiat", model:"500", color:"white"};
car = {type:"Volvo", model:"EX60", color:"red"};    // ERROR
Try it Yourself »

Constant Arrays can Change

You can change the elements of a constant array:

Example

// You can create a constant array:
const cars = ["Saab", "Volvo", "BMW"];

// You can change an element:
cars[0] = "Toyota";

// You can add an element:
cars.push("Audi");
Try it Yourself »

But you can NOT reassign a constant array:

Example

const cars = ["Saab", "Volvo", "BMW"];
cars = ["Toyota", "Volvo", "Audi"];    // ERROR
Try it Yourself »

Browser Support

The const keyword is not supported in Internet Explorer 10 or earlier.

The following table defines the first browser versions with full support for the const keyword:

Chrome 49 IE / Edge 11 Firefox 36 Safari 10 Opera 36
Mar, 2016 Oct, 2013 Feb, 2015 Sep, 2016 Mar, 2016


Redeclaring

Redeclaring a JavaScript var variable is allowed anywhere in a program:

Example

var x = 2;    //  Allowed
var x = 3;    //  Allowed
x = 4;        //  Allowed

Redeclaring or reassigning an existing var or let variable to const, in the same scope, or in the same block, is not allowed:

Example

var x = 2;         // Allowed
const x = 2;       // Not allowed
{
    let x = 2;     // Allowed
    const x = 2;   // Not allowed
}

Redeclaring or reassigning an existing const variable, in the same scope, or in the same block, is not allowed:

Example

const x = 2;       // Allowed
const x = 3;       // Not allowed
x = 3;             // Not allowed
var x = 3;         // Not allowed
let x = 3;         // Not allowed

{
    const x = 2;   // Allowed
    const x = 3;   // Not allowed
    x = 3;         // Not allowed
    var x = 3;     // Not allowed
    let x = 3;     // Not allowed
}

Redeclaring a variable with const, in another scope, or in another block, is allowed:

Example

const x = 2;       // Allowed

{
    const x = 3;   // Allowed
}

{
    const x = 4;   // Allowed
}

Hoisting

Variables defined with var are hoisted to the top. (Js Hoisting)

You can use a var variable before it is declared:

Example

carName = "Volvo";    // You CAN use carName here
var carName;
Try it Yourself »

Variables defined with const are not hoisted to the top.

A const variable is cannot be used before it is declared

Example

carName = "Volvo";    // You can NOT use carName here
const carName = "Volvo";