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JavaScript Const

ECMAScript 2015

ES2015 introduced two important new JavaScript keywords: let and const.

Variables defined with const behave like let variables, except they cannot be reassigned:


const PI = 3.141592653589793;
PI = 3.14;      // This will give an error
PI = PI + 10;   // This will also give an error
Try it Yourself »

Block Scope

Declaring a variable with const is similar to let when it comes to Block Scope.

The x declared in the block, in this example, is not the same as the x declared outside the block:


var x = 10;
// Here x is 10
  const x = 2;
  // Here x is 2
// Here x is 10
Try it Yourself »

You can learn more about Block Scope in the previous chapter: JavaScript Let.

Assigned when Declared

JavaScript const variables must be assigned a value when they are declared:


const PI;
PI = 3.14159265359;


const PI = 3.14159265359;

Not Real Constants

The keyword const is a little misleading.

It does NOT define a constant value. It defines a constant reference to a value.

Because of this, we cannot change constant primitive values, but we can change the properties of constant objects.

Primitive Values

If we assign a primitive value to a constant, we cannot change the primitive value: 


const PI = 3.141592653589793;
PI = 3.14;      // This will give an error
PI = PI + 10;   // This will also give an error
Try it Yourself »

Constant Objects can Change

You can change the properties of a constant object:


// You can create a const object:
const car = {type:"Fiat", model:"500", color:"white"};

// You can change a property:
car.color = "red";

// You can add a property:
car.owner = "Johnson";
Try it Yourself »

But you can NOT reassign a constant object:


const car = {type:"Fiat", model:"500", color:"white"};
car = {type:"Volvo", model:"EX60", color:"red"};    // ERROR
Try it Yourself »

Constant Arrays can Change

You can change the elements of a constant array:


// You can create a constant array:
const cars = ["Saab", "Volvo", "BMW"];

// You can change an element:
cars[0] = "Toyota";

// You can add an element:
Try it Yourself »

But you can NOT reassign a constant array:


const cars = ["Saab", "Volvo", "BMW"];
cars = ["Toyota", "Volvo", "Audi"];    // ERROR
Try it Yourself »

Browser Support

The const keyword is not supported in Internet Explorer 10 or earlier.

The following table defines the first browser versions with full support for the const keyword:

Chrome 49 IE / Edge 11 Firefox 36 Safari 10 Opera 36
Mar, 2016 Oct, 2013 Feb, 2015 Sep, 2016 Mar, 2016


Redeclaring a JavaScript var variable is allowed anywhere in a program:


var x = 2;    //  Allowed
var x = 3;    //  Allowed
x = 4;        //  Allowed

Redeclaring or reassigning an existing var or let variable to const, in the same scope, or in the same block, is not allowed:


var x = 2;         // Allowed
const x = 2;       // Not allowed
  let x = 2;     // Allowed
  const x = 2;   // Not allowed

Redeclaring or reassigning an existing const variable, in the same scope, or in the same block, is not allowed:


const x = 2;       // Allowed
const x = 3;       // Not allowed
x = 3;             // Not allowed
var x = 3;         // Not allowed
let x = 3;         // Not allowed

  const x = 2;   // Allowed
  const x = 3;   // Not allowed
  x = 3;         // Not allowed
  var x = 3;     // Not allowed
  let x = 3;     // Not allowed

Redeclaring a variable with const, in another scope, or in another block, is allowed:


const x = 2;       // Allowed

  const x = 3;   // Allowed

  const x = 4;   // Allowed


Variables defined with var are hoisted to the top and can be initialized at any time (if you don't know what Hoisting is, read our Hoisting Chapter).

Meaning: You can use the variable before it is declared:


This is OK:

carName = "Volvo";
var carName;
Try it Yourself »

Variables defined with const are hoisted to the top of the block, but not initialized.

Meaning: The block of code is aware of the variable, but it cannot be used until it has been declared.

The variable is in a "temporal dead zone" from the start of the block until it is declared.

Using a const variable before it is declared, is a syntax errror, so the code will simply not run.


This code will not run:

carName = "Volvo";
const carName;
Try it Yourself »