JavaScript Arithmetic

JavaScript Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators perform arithmetic on numbers (literals or variables).

Operator Description
- Subtraction
* Multiplication
** Exponentiation (ES2016)
/ Division
% Modulus (Remainder)
++ Increment
-- Decrement

Arithmetic Operations

A typical arithmetic operation operates on two numbers.

The two numbers can be literals:

Example

let x = 100 + 50;
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or variables:

Example

let x = a + b;
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or expressions:

Example

let x = (100 + 50) * a;
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Operators and Operands

The numbers (in an arithmetic operation) are called operands.

The operation (to be performed between the two operands) is defined by an operator.

Operand Operator Operand
100 + 50

The addition operator (`+`) adds numbers:

Example

let x = 5;
let y = 2;
let z = x + y;
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Subtracting

The subtraction operator (`-`) subtracts numbers.

Example

let x = 5;
let y = 2;
let z = x - y;
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Multiplying

The multiplication operator (`*`) multiplies numbers.

Example

let x = 5;
let y = 2;
let z = x * y;
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Dividing

The division operator (`/`) divides numbers.

Example

let x = 5;
let y = 2;
let z = x / y;
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Remainder

The modulus operator (`%`) returns the division remainder.

Example

let x = 5;
let y = 2;
let z = x % y;
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In arithmetic, the division of two integers produces a quotient and a remainder.

In mathematics, the result of a modulo operation is the remainder of an arithmetic division.

Incrementing

The increment operator (`++`) increments numbers.

Example

let x = 5;
x++;
let z = x;
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Decrementing

The decrement operator (`--`) decrements numbers.

Example

let x = 5;
x--;
let z = x;
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Exponentiation

The exponentiation operator (`**`) raises the first operand to the power of the second operand.

Example

let x = 5;
let z = x ** 2;
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x ** y produces the same result as `Math.pow(x,y)`:

Example

let x = 5;
let z = Math.pow(x,2);
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Operator Precedence

Operator precedence describes the order in which operations are performed in an arithmetic expression.

Example

let x = 100 + 50 * 3;
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Is the result of example above the same as 150 * 3, or is it the same as 100 + 150?

Is the addition or the multiplication done first?

As in traditional school mathematics, the multiplication is done first.

Multiplication (`*`) and division (`/`) have higher precedence than addition (`+`) and subtraction (`-`).

And (as in school mathematics) the precedence can be changed by using parentheses.

When using parentheses, the operations inside the parentheses are computed first:

Example

let x = (100 + 50) * 3;
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When many operations have the same precedence (like addition and subtraction or multiplication and division), they are computed from left to right:

Examples

let x = 100 + 50 - 3;
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let x = 100 / 50 * 3;
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Note

For a full list of operator precedence values go to:

Exercise:

Divide `10` by `2`, and alert the result.

```alert(10  2);
```

Start the Exercise

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