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JS Forms

JS Forms Forms API

JS Objects

Object Definitions Object Properties Object Methods Object Display Object Accessors Object Constructors Object Prototypes Object ECMAScript 5

JS Functions

Function Definitions Function Parameters Function Invocation Function Call Function Apply Function Closures

JS Classes

Class Intro Class Inheritance Class Static

JS Async

JS Callbacks JS Asynchronous JS Promises JS Async/Await

JS HTML DOM

DOM Intro DOM Methods DOM Document DOM Elements DOM HTML DOM CSS DOM Animations DOM Events DOM Event Listener DOM Navigation DOM Nodes DOM Collections DOM Node Lists

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JS AJAX

AJAX Intro AJAX XMLHttp AJAX Request AJAX Response AJAX XML File AJAX PHP AJAX ASP AJAX Database AJAX Applications AJAX Examples

JS JSON

JSON Intro JSON Syntax JSON vs XML JSON Data Types JSON Parse JSON Stringify JSON Objects JSON Arrays JSON PHP JSON HTML JSON JSONP

JS Web APIs

Web API Intro Web History API Web Storage API Web Worker API Web Fetch API Web Geolocation API

JS vs jQuery

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JS References

JavaScript Objects HTML DOM Objects


JavaScript Promises

"I Promise a Result!"

"Producing code" is code that can take some time

"Consuming code" is code that must wait for the result

A Promise is a JavaScript object that links producing code and consuming code

JavaScript Promise Object

A JavaScript Promise object contains both the producing code and calls to the consuming code:

Promise Syntax

let myPromise = new Promise(function(myResolve, myReject) {
// "Producing Code" (May take some time)

  myResolve(); // when successful
  myReject();  // when error
});

// "Consuming Code" (Must wait for a fulfilled Promise)
myPromise.then(
  function(value) { /* code if successful */ },
  function(error) { /* code if some error */ }
);

When the executing code obtains the result, it should call one of the two callbacks:

ResultCall
SuccessmyResolve(result value)
ErrormyReject(error object)

Promise Object Properties

A JavaScript Promise object can be:

  • Pending
  • Fulfilled
  • Rejected

The Promise object supports two properties: state and result.

While a Promise object is "pending" (working), the result is undefined.

When a Promise object is "fulfilled", the result is a value.

When a Promise object is "rejected", the result is an error object.

myPromise.statemyPromise.result
"pending"undefined
"fulfilled"a result value
"rejected"an error object

You cannot access the Promise properties state and result.

You must use a Promise method to handle promises.


Promise How To

Here is how to use a Promise:

myPromise.then(
  function(value) { /* code if successful */ },
  function(error) { /* code if some error */ }
);

Promise.then() takes two arguments, a callback for success and another for failure.

Both are optional, so you can add a callback for success or failure only.

Example

function myDisplayer(some) {
  document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML = some;
}

let myPromise = new Promise(function(myResolve, myReject) {
  let x = 0;

// The producing code (this may take some time)

  if (x == 0) {
    myResolve("OK");
  } else {
    myReject("Error");
  }
});

myPromise.then(
  function(value) {myDisplayer(value);},
  function(error) {myDisplayer(error);}
);

Try it Yourself »


JavaScript Promise Examples

To demonstrate the use of promises, we will use the callback examples from the previous chapter:

  • Waiting for a Timeout
  • Waiting for a File

Waiting for a Timeout

Example Using Callback

setTimeout(function() { myFunction("I love You !!!"); }, 3000);

function myFunction(value) {
  document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML = value;
}

Try it Yourself »

Example Using Promise

let myPromise = new Promise(function(myResolve, myReject) {
  setTimeout(function() { myResolve("I love You !!"); }, 3000);
});

myPromise.then(function(value) {
  document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML = value;
});

Try it Yourself »


Waiting for a file

Example using Callback

function getFile(myCallback) {
  let req = new XMLHttpRequest();
  req.open('GET', "mycar.html");
  req.onload = function() {
    if (req.status == 200) {
      myCallback(req.responseText);
    } else {
      myCallback("Error: " + req.status);
    }
  }
  req.send();
}

getFile(myDisplayer);

Try it Yourself »

Example using Promise

let myPromise = new Promise(function(myResolve, myReject) {
  let req = new XMLHttpRequest();
  req.open('GET', "mycar.htm");
  req.onload = function() {
    if (req.status == 200) {
      myResolve(req.response);
    } else {
      myReject("File not Found");
    }
  };
  req.send();
});

myPromise.then(
  function(value) {myDisplayer(value);},
  function(error) {myDisplayer(error);}
);

Try it Yourself »


Browser Support

ECMAScript 2015, also known as ES6, introduced the JavaScript Promise object.

The following table defines the first browser version with full support for Promise objects:

Chrome 33 Edge 12 Firefox 29 Safari 7.1 Opera 20
Feb, 2014 Jul, 2015 Apr, 2014 Sep, 2014 Mar, 2014