# JavaScript Arithmetic

## JavaScript Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators perform arithmetic on numbers (literals or variables).

Operator | Description |
---|---|

+ | Addition |

- | Subtraction |

* | Multiplication |

** | Exponentiation (ES2016) |

/ | Division |

% | Modulus (Remainder) |

++ | Increment |

-- | Decrement |

## Arithmetic Operations

A typical arithmetic operation operates on two numbers.

The two numbers can be literals:

or variables:

or expressions:

## Operators and Operands

The numbers (in an arithmetic operation) are called **operands**.

The operation (to be performed between the two operands) is defined by an **operator**.

Operand | Operator | Operand |
---|---|---|

100 | + | 50 |

## Adding

The **addition** operator (`+`

) adds numbers:

## Subtracting

The **subtraction** operator (`-`

) subtracts numbers.

## Multiplying

The **multiplication** operator (`*`

) multiplies numbers.

## Dividing

The **division** operator (`/`

) divides numbers.

## Remainder

The **modulus** operator (`%`

) returns the division remainder.

In arithmetic, the division of two integers produces a **quotient**
and a **remainder**.

In mathematics, the result of a **modulo operation** is the **remainder** of an arithmetic division.

## Incrementing

The **increment** operator (`++`

) increments numbers.

## Decrementing

The **decrement** operator (`--`

) decrements numbers.

## Exponentiation

The **exponentiation** operator (`**`

) raises the first operand to the power of the second operand.

x ** y produces the same result as `Math.pow(x,y)`

:

## Operator Precedence

Operator precedence describes the order in which operations are performed in an arithmetic expression.

Is the result of example above the same as 150 * 3, or is it the same as 100 + 150?

Is the addition or the multiplication done first?

As in traditional school mathematics, the multiplication is done first.

Multiplication (`*`

) and division (`/`

) have higher **precedence** than
addition (`+`

) and subtraction (`-`

).

And (as in school mathematics) the precedence can be changed by using parentheses.

When using parentheses, the operations inside the parentheses are computed first:

When many operations have the same precedence (like addition and subtraction or multiplication and division), they are computed from left to right: