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Python JSON


JSON is a syntax for storing and exchanging data.

JSON is text, written with JavaScript object notation.


JSON in Python

Python has a built-in package called json, which can be used to work with JSON data.

Example

Import the json module:

import json

Parse JSON - Convert from JSON to Python

If you have a JSON string, you can parse it by using the json.loads() method.

The result will be a Python dictionary.

Example

Convert from JSON to Python:

import json

# some JSON:
x =  '{ "name":"John", "age":30, "city":"New York"}'

# parse x:
y = json.loads(x)

# the result is a Python dictionary:
print(y["age"])
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Convert from Python to JSON

If you have a Python object, you can convert it into a JSON string by using the json.dumps() method.

Example

Convert from Python to JSON:

import json

# a Python object (dict):
x = {
  "name": "John",
  "age": 30,
  "city": "New York"
}

# convert into JSON:
y = json.dumps(x)

# the result is a JSON string:
print(y)
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You can convert Python objects of the following types, into JSON strings:

  • dict
  • list
  • tuple
  • string
  • int
  • float
  • True
  • False
  • None

Example

Convert Python objects into JSON strings, and print the values:

import json

print(json.dumps({"name": "John", "age": 30}))
print(json.dumps(["apple", "bananas"]))
print(json.dumps(("apple", "bananas")))
print(json.dumps("hello"))
print(json.dumps(42))
print(json.dumps(31.76))
print(json.dumps(True))
print(json.dumps(False))
print(json.dumps(None))
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When you convert from Python to JSON, Python objects are converted into the JSON (JavaScript) equivalent:

Python JSON
dict Object
list Array
tuple Array
str String
int Number
float Number
True true
False false
None null

Example

Convert a Python object containing all the legal data types:

import json

x = {
  "name": "John",
  "age": 30,
  "married": True,
  "divorced": False,
  "children": ("Ann","Billy"),
  "pets": None,
  "cars": [
    {"model": "BMW 230", "mpg": 27.5},
    {"model": "Ford Edge", "mpg": 24.1}
  ]
}

print(json.dumps(x))
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Format the Result

The example above prints a JSON string, but it is not very easy to read, with no indentations and line breaks.

The json.dumps() method has parameters to make it easier to read the result:

Example

Use the indent parameter to define the numbers of indents:

json.dumps(x, indent=4)
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You can also define the separators, default value is (", ", ": "), which means using a comma and a space to separate each object, and a colon and a space to separate keys from values:

Example

Use the separators parameter to change the default separator:

json.dumps(x, indent=4, separators=(". ", " = "))
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Order the Result

The json.dumps() method has parameters to order the keys in the result:

Example

Use the sort_keys parameter to specify if the result should be sorted or not:

json.dumps(x, indent=4, sort_keys=True)
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