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Python Numbers


Python Numbers

There are three numeric types in Python:

  • int
  • float
  • complex

Variables of numeric types are created when you assign a value to them:

Example

x = 1    # int
y = 2.8  # float
z = 1j   # complex

To verify the type of any object in Python, use the type() function:

Example

print(type(x))
print(type(y))
print(type(z))
Run example »

Int

Int, or integer, is a whole number, positive or negative, without decimals, of unlimited length.

Example

Integers:

x = 1
y = 35656222554887711
z = -3255522

print(type(x))
print(type(y))
print(type(z))
Run example »

Float

Float, or "floating point number" is a number, positive or negative, containing one or more decimals.

Example

Floats:

x = 1.10
y = 1.0
z = -35.59

print(type(x))
print(type(y))
print(type(z))
Run example »

Float can also be scientific numbers with an "e" to indicate the power of 10.

Example

Floats:

x = 35e3
y = 12E4
z = -87.7e100

print(type(x))
print(type(y))
print(type(z))
Run example »


Complex

Complex numbers are written with a "j" as the imaginary part:

Example

Complex:

x = 3+5j
y = 5j
z = -5j

print(type(x))
print(type(y))
print(type(z))
Run example »

Type Conversion

You can convert from one type to another with the int(), float(), and complex() methods:

Example

Convert from one type to another:

x = 1 # int
y = 2.8 # float
z = 1j # complex

#convert from int to float:
a = float(x)

#convert from float to int:
b = int(y)

#convert from int to complex:
c = complex(x)

print(a)
print(b)
print(c)

print(type(a))
print(type(b))
print(type(c))
Run example »

Note: You cannot convert complex numbers into another number type.


Random Number

Python does not have a random() function to make a random number, but Python has a built-in module called random that can be used to make random numbers:

Example

Import the random module, and display a random number between 1 and 9:

import random

print(random.randrange(1,10))
Run example »

In our Random Module Reference you will learn more about the Random module.