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Python Math

Python has a set of built-in math functions, including an extensive math module, that allows you to perform mathematical tasks on numbers.

Built-in Math Functions

The min() and max() functions can be used to find the lowest or highest value in an iterable:


x = min(5, 10, 25)
y = max(5, 10, 25)

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The abs() function returns the absolute (positive) value of the specified number:


x = abs(-7.25)

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The pow(x, y) function returns the value of x to the power of y (xy).


Return the value of 4 to the power of 3 (same as 4 * 4 * 4):

x = pow(4, 3)

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The Math Module

Python has also a built-in module called math, which extends the list of mathematical functions.

To use it, you must import the math module:

import math

When you have imported the math module, you can start using methods and constants of the module.

The math.sqrt() method for example, returns the square root of a number:


import math

x = math.sqrt(64)

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The math.ceil() method rounds a number upwards to its nearest integer, and the math.floor() method rounds a number downwards to its nearest integer, and returns the result:


import math

x = math.ceil(1.4)
y = math.floor(1.4)

print(x) # returns 2
print(y) # returns 1
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The math.pi constant, returns the value of PI (3.14...):


import math

x = math.pi

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Complete Math Module Reference

In our Math Module Reference you will find a complete reference of all methods and constants that belongs to the Math module.